Mechanical Properties and Working of Metals and Alloys / Amit Bhaduri (2018)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRIEF CONTENTS

Part I – Mechanical Properties of Metals and Alloys

1 Tension

  • Introduction
    • Description of Stress at a Point
  • Strain
    • True Versus Engineering Strain
    • Advantages of True Strain Over Engineering Strain
    • Poisson’s Ratio and Volume Strain
  • Conventional and True Stresses
    • Relationship Between True and Engineering Stresses During Plastic Deformation
  • Elastic Stress–Strain Relations
    • Three-Dimensional State of Stress
  • Elements of Plastic Deformation
    • Relationship Between Principal Normal and Shear Stresses
    • Mohr’s Stress Circle
    • Slip
    • Twinning
    • Strain Hardening
    • Stacking Fault
    • Strengthening Methods
    • Spherical and Deviator Components of Stress
    • Yielding Criteria for Ductile Metals
    • Octahedral Shear Stress and Shear Strain
    • Invariants of Stress and Strain
    • Levy–Mises Equations for Ideal Plastic Solid
    • Yielding Criteria Under Plane Strain
  • Types of Tensile Stress–Strain Curve
    • Type I: Elastic Behaviour
    • Type II: Elastic–Homogeneous Plastic Behaviour
    • Type III: Elastic–Heterogeneous Plastic Behaviour
    • Type IV: Elastic–Heterogeneous–Homogeneous Plastic Behaviour
    • Type V: Elastic–Heterogeneous–Homogeneous Plastic Behaviour for Some Crystalline Polymers
  • Linear Elastic Properties
    • Modulus of Elasticity
    • Proportional and Elastic Limit
    • Resilience and Modulus of Resilience
  • Nonlinear Elastic Properties
    • Secant and Tangent Modulus
    • Elastomer or Rubber Elasticity
    • Elastic Resilience or Resilience
  • Inelastic Properties
    • Yield Strength
    • Ultimate and True Tensile Strength
    • Ductility
    • Fracture Strength and True Fracture Strength
    • Toughness
  • Influence of Temperature on Tensile Properties
    • Effect of Temperature on Stress–Strain Curve of Mild Steel
  • Strain Rate
    • Relation Between Flow Stress and Strain Rate
    • Superplasticity
    • Effect of Strain Rate on Stress–Strain Curve of Mild Steel
  • Testing Machine
    • Influence of Testing Machine on Strain and Strain Rate
  • Notch Tensile Test
  • Tensile Fracture
  • Solved Problems

2 Compression

  • Introduction
  • Standard Specimen
  • Elastic Range
  • Plastic Range
    • Stress and Strain
    • Strain Rate
    • Brittle Materials
    • Ductile Materials
  • Bauschinger Effect
  • Advantages of Compression Over Tension Test
  • Problems in Compression Test
    • Buckling
    • Barreling
  • Compressive Failure of Materials
  • Solved Problems

3 Hardness

  • Introduction
  • Classification of Hardness
  • Precautions to Avoid Erratic Hardness Measurement
  • Mohs’ Scale of Hardness
  • File Hardness Test
  • Brinell Hardness
    • Principle of Testing
    • Derivation for BHN
    • Indenters, Loads and Loading Periods
    • Method of Testing
    • Anomalous Behaviour
    • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Meyer Hardness
    • Meyer’s Law
    • Load Sensitivity
    • Influence of P/D2
  • Rockwell Hardness
    • Principle of Testing
    • Loads
    • Indenters
    • Direct-Reading Hardness Dial
    • Hardness Scale
    • Method of Testing
    • Advantages
  • Rockwell Superficial Hardness
    • Principle of Operation
    • Superficial Hardness Scale
    • Merits and Demerits
  • Vickers Hardness
    • Indenters and Loads.
    • Principle of Operation
    • VHN Versus BHN
    • Operational Method
    • Minimum Thickness of Test Section
    • Anomalous Behaviour
    • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Microhardness (Knoop Hardness)
    • Penetrators and Loads
    • Principle of Operation
    • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Monotron Hardness
    • Indenters and Hardness Scales
    • Principle of Operation
    • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Shore Scleroscope Hardness
    • Principle of Testing
    • Mass Effect of Test Piece
    • Advantages
  • Poldi Impact Hardness
    • Principle of Testing
    • Use of Supplied Table to Determine BHN
    • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • The Herbert Pendulum Hardness
    • Time Test
    • Scale Test
    • Time Work-Hardening Test
    • Scale Work-Hardening Test
  • Nanohardness
    • Indenters
    • Derivation for Berkovich Hardness
    • Determination of Contact Depth of Penetration
    • Correction for Machine Compliance
    • Indenter Shape Function
    • Errors Due to Pile-Up
    • Martens Hardness
  • Relationship to Flow Curve and Prediction of Tensile Properties
  • Solved Problems

4 Bending

  • Introduction
  • Pure Bending
    • Bending Stresses and Flexure Formula
    • Experimental Method
  • Beam Design in Pure Bending
  • Linear Elastic Behaviour
    • Important Variables Affecting Modulus of Rupture
    • Modulus of Elastic Resilience
  • Yielding
    • Discontinuous Yielding and Shape Factor
  • Nonlinear Stress–Strain Relations
  • Shear Stresses in Elastically Bent Beam
  • Solved Problems

5 Torsion—Pure Shear

  • Introduction
  • State of Stress and Strain
    • Shear Strain
    • Relation Between Shear Modulus ‘G’ and Young’s Modulus ‘E’
  • Relation Between Shear Strain and Angle of Twist
  • Torsional Stresses in Elastic Range
    • Relation Between Torque, Shear Modulus and Angle of Twist
    • Computation of Torque in Practical Applications
    • Polar Moment of Inertia, Shear Stress and Angle of Twist
    • Thin-Walled Tube of Arbitrary Cross-Section
  • Torsional Stresses for Plastic Strains
  • Behaviour of Material in Torsion
    • Testing Equipment
    • Specimen
  • Elastic Properties
    • Shear Modulus and Torsional Proportional Limit
    • Torsional Modulus of Elastic Resilience
  • Inelastic Properties
    • Torsional Yield Strength
    • Ultimate Torsional Shear Strength or Modulus of Rupture
    • Ductility
  • Torsion Test Versus Tension Test
    • Comparison in Terms of State of Stress and Strain
    • Comparison of Ductile Behaviour
    • Torsional Shear Stress–Strain Diagram from Tensile Flow Curve
  • Failure Under Torsion
  • Solved Problem

6 Impact Loading

  • Dynamic Loading and Brittle Fracture
    • Factors Responsible for Brittle Behaviour
  • Notched-Bar Impact Tests
    • Single-Blow Pendulum Impact Test
  • Calculation of Energy Relations
    • Correction for Energy Losses
  • Impact Properties
    • Transition Temperature Curves
    • Various Criteria of Transition Temperature
  • Metallurgical Factors Affecting Impact Properties
    • Embrittlement During Tempering
  • Instrumented Charpy Impact Test
  • Additional Large-Scale Fracture Test Methods
    • Explosion-Crack-Starter Test
    • Drop Weight Test (DWT)
    • Robertson Crack-Arrest Test
    • Dynamic Tear (DT) Test
  • Fracture Analysis Diagram (FAD)
    • Design Philosophy Using FAD
  • Solved Problems

7 Creep and Stress Rupture

  • Long-Time Loading at High Temperature
  • The Creep Curve
  • Strain–Time Relations
  • Creep Rate–Stress–Temperature Relations
  • Steady-State Creep
    • Effect of Grain Size
    • Activation Energy
  • Creep Deformation Mechanisms
    • Dislocation Creep or Climb–Glide Creep
    • Diffusional Creep
    • Grain-Boundary Sliding
  • Deformation Mechanism Map
  • The Stress-Rupture Test
  • Concept of ECT and Elevated-Temperature Fracture
    • Wedge-Shaped Cracks and Round or Elliptically Shaped Cavities
  • Presentation of Engineering Creep Data
    • Prediction of Creep Strength
    • Prediction of Creep-Rupture Strength
  • Parameter Methods to Predict Long-Time Properties
    • Larson–Miller Parameter
    • Orr–Sherby–Dorn Parameter
    • Manson–Haferd Parameter
    • Goldhoff–Sherby Parameter
    • Limitations of Parameter Methods
  • Stress Relaxation
    • Step-Down Creep Test
  • Materials for High-Temperature Use
    • Rules to Develop Creep Resistance
  • Creep Under Multiaxial Stresses
  • Indentation Creep
    • Method to Obtain Creep Curve Using Rockwell Hardness Tester
  • Solved Problems

8 Fatigue

  • Fatigue Failure
  • Stress Cycles
  • Standard Fatigue Test
  • The S–N Diagram and Fatigue Properties
    • Reason for Existence of Fatigue Limit
  • Statistical Nature of Fatigue
  • Fatigue Crack Nucleation and Growth
    • Fatigue Crack Growth Rate
  • Effect of Mean Stress
  • Stress Fluctuation and Cumulative Fatigue Damage
    • Overstressing, Understressing and Coaxing
    • Cumulative Fatigue Damage
  • Stress Concentration Effect
  • Size Effect
  • Surface Effects and Surface Treatments
    • Surface Roughness and Treatment
    • Surface Properties and Treatment
    • Surface Residual Stress and Treatment
    • Metallurgical Processes Detrimental to Fatigue
  • Effect of Metallurgical Variables
  • Frequency of Stress Cycling
  • Temperature Effect
    • Low Temperature
    • High Temperature
    • Thermal Fatigue
  • Chemical Effects
  • Cyclic Strain-Controlled Fatigue
    • Low-Cycle Fatigue
    • Strain–Life Equation and Curve
  • Creep–Fatigue Interaction
  • Increasing Amplitude Tests
    • Step Test
    • Prot Test
  • Solved Problems

9 Fracture

  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Cohesive Strength
  • Inglis Analysis of Stress Concentration Factor
  • Effects of Notch
  • Characteristic Features of Fracture Process
    • Energy to Fracture
    • Macroscopic Mode of Fracture
    • Microscopic Mode of Fracture or Fractography
  • Griffith Theory of Brittle Fracture
    • Applicability of Griffith Theory
    • Modification of Griffith Theory
  • Elastic Strain Energy Release Rate
  • Stress Intensity Factor
    • Different Crack Surface Displacements
    • Relationship Between Energy Release Rate and Stress Intensity Factor
    • Fracture Toughness
  • Plastic Zone at Crack Tip
    • Effective Stress Intensity Factor
  • Fracture Toughness: Plane Stress Versus Plane Strain
  • Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness (KIc) Testing
    • Specimen Size, Configurations, and Preparation
    • Test, Interpretation of Result and Calculation of (KIc)
    • Kc from KIc
  • Design Philosophy with Fracture Toughness
  • Solved Problems

Part II – Mechanical Working of Metals and Alloys

10 Fundamentals of Mechanical Working

  • Classification of Mechanical Forming Processes
    • Aims of Mechanical Working
    • Different Forming Processes
  • Temperature and Strain Rate
    • Cold-Work-Anneal Cycle
    • Temperature Limits for Hot Working
    • Hot Working Versus Cold Working
    • Warm Working
    • Temperature Change During Working
    • Strain-Rate Effects
    • Choice of Allowable Hot Working Temperature Range
  • Friction
    • Coulomb’s Law of Sliding Friction
    • Shear Friction Factor
    • Measurement of Friction
    • Adverse Effects of Friction
    • Beneficial Effects of Friction
  • Lubrication
    • Material Transfer
    • Functions and Characteristics of a Lubricant
    • Lubrication Mechanism
  • Mechanics of Working Process
    • Slab Method
    • Uniform-Deformation Energy Method
    • Slip-Line Field Theory
    • Upper-Bound Technique
    • Finite Element Method
  • Deformation-Zone Geometry
  • Anisotropy of Mechanical Properties
  • Solved Problems

11 Forging

  • Classification of Forging Processes
  • Types of Forging Operations
  • Forging Equipments
    • Drop Forging Hammer
    • Forging Press
  • Open-Die Forging
  • Closed-Die or Impression-Die Forging
    • Flash
    • Draft
    • Radii
    • Parting Line
    • Design Steps
  • Material Loss During Forging
  • Plane Strain Forging of Flat Rectangular Plate
    • Coulomb Sliding Friction
    • Sliding with Shear Friction Factor and Sticking Friction
    • Mixed Sticking–Sliding Friction
    • Selection of Proper Equation for Forging Load
  • Plane Strain Forging of Strip with Inclined Dies
    • Strip Thickness at Neutral Plane and Its Location
  • Forging of Flat Circular Disk
    • Coulomb Sliding Friction
    • Sliding with Shear Friction Factor and Sticking Friction
    • Mixed Sticking–Sliding Friction
    • Selection of Proper Equation for Forging Load
  • Forging of Circular Disk by Conical Pointed Dies
  • Forging Defects
  • Solved Problems

12 Rolling

  • Fundamentals of Rolling
    • Terminology of Rolled Product
    • Different Methods of Rolling
    • Quantities Characterizing Deformation
  • Classification of Rolling Mills
    • Cluster Mill
    • Sendzimir Cold-Rolling Mill
    • Sendzimir Planetary Hot-Rolling Mill
    • Pendulum Mill
    • Contact-Bend-Stretch Mill
    • Universal Mill
  • Rolling Practice
    • Hot Rolling
    • Cold Rolling
  • Deformation Zone in Rolling
    • Angle of Bite
    • Neutral Point
  • Ekelund Expression for No-Slip Angle
  • Forward Slip
    • Relation with No-Slip Angle
    • Measurement of Forward Slip
    • Importance of Forward Slip
  • Elastic Deformation of Rolls
    • Roll Flattening
    • Roll Deflection
  • Simplified Assessment of Rolling Load
    • Ekelund Equation for Rolling Load
  • Theory of Rolling: Derivation of Differential Equation
    of Friction Hill
  • Bland and Ford Theory of Cold Rolling
    • Cold Rolling with no External Tensions
    • Cold Rolling with Back and Front Tensions
    • No-Slip Angle in Cold Rolling
    • Cold-Rolling Load
    • Cold-Rolling Torque
    • Maximum Allowable Back Tension
    • Estimation of Friction Coefficient
  • Sims’ Theory of Hot Rolling
    • No-Slip Angle in Hot Rolling
    • Hot-Rolling Load
    • Hot-Rolling Torque
    • Limitations of Sims’ Theory
    • Mean Strain Rate
  • Lever Arm Ratio, Roll Torque and Mill Power
    • Estimation of Lever Arm Ratio from Sims’ Theory
    • Mill Power
  • Minimum Thickness in Rolling
  • Factors Controlling Rolling
  • Gauge Control
  • Defects in Rolled Products
  • Roll Pass Design Fundamentals
    • Types and Shapes of Passes
    • Gap and Taper of Sides in Pass
    • Pass Arrangement
    • Pass Sequences Used in Rolling of Billets to Rods
    • Pass Sequences Used in Rolling of Billets to Square Bars
  • Manufacture of Tubes and Pipes
    • Production of Seamless Tube and Pipe by Hot Rolling
  • Solved Problems

13 Extrusion

  • Introduction
    • Comparison with Rolling
  • Two Basic Methods of Extrusion
    • Direct Versus Indirect Extrusion
  • Extrusion Equipments
    • Extrusion Dies
  • Metal Flow During Extrusion
  • Factors Influencing Extrusion
  • Estimation of Extrusion Load
    • Open-Die, Indirect and Hydrostatic Extrusions
    • Direct Extrusion Through Conical Converging Die
    • Direct Extrusion Through Square Die
    • Selection of Proper Equation for Ram Load and Stress
  • Strain Rate in Extrusion
  • Extrusion Defects
  • Impact Extrusion
  • Hydrostatic Extrusion
    • Basic Difference Between Hydrostatic and Conventional Extrusion
    • Conventional Hydrostatic Extrusion
    • Differential Pressure Hydrostatic Extrusion
    • Advantages of Hydrostatic Extrusion
    • Disadvantages of Hydrostatic Extrusion
  • Seamless Tube Production by Extrusion
    • Extrusion of Cable Sheathing
  • Application of Slip-Line Field to Steady-State Motion
    • 50% Plane-Strain Frictionless Extrusion
    • 2/3 Plane-Strain Frictionless Extrusion
  • Upper-Bound Solution for Plane-Strain Frictionless Extrusion
  • Solved Problems

14 Drawing: Flat Strip, Round Bar and Tube

  • Introduction
  • Strip Drawing Through Wedge-Shaped Dies
    • Drawing Stress with Friction
    • Frictionless Ideal Drawing Stress
    • Maximum Reduction of Area in a Single Pass With and Without Friction
    • Drawing Stress for Work-Hardening Strip
  • Drawing Stress of Strip Through Cylindrical Dies
  • Treatments of Work Metal Prior to Drawing
  • Drawing Equipments
    • Conical Converging Die
  • Drawing of Rod and Wire
    • Drawing Load and Power with Friction and Back Tension
    • Frictionless Ideal Drawing Stress
    • Maximum Reduction of Area in a Single Pass
    • Redundant Deformation
    • Drawing Stress Versus Die-cone Angle: Optimum Cone Angle, Dead Zone and Shaving
  • Tube Drawing
    • Close-Pass Plug Drawing Stress and Load
    • Close-Pass Mandrel Drawing Stress
    • Maximum Reduction of Area in a Single Pass
    • Tube Sinking
    • Equilibrium Condition of Forces Acting on a Floating Plug
  • Application of Slip-Line Field to Strip Drawing
  • Upper-Bound Solution for Strip Drawing
  • Solved Problems

15 Deep Drawing

  • Fundamentals of Deep Drawing
    • Stresses and Deformation in a Deep-Drawn Cup
  • Deep-Drawing Load
    • Derivation of Mathematical Expression
  • Formability
    • Strain Distribution
    • Maximum Strain Levels: The Forming Limit Diagram
  • Deep Drawability
    • Plastic Strain Ratio
    • Drawing Ratio
  • Effects of Process and Material Variables
    • Effect of Drawing Ratio
    • Radii of Die and Punch
    • Punch-to-Die Clearance
    • Drawing Speed
    • Friction and Lubrication
    • Restraint of Metal Flow
    • Material Parameters
  • Evaluation of Formability
    • Marciniak Biaxial Stretching Test
    • Swift Cup Test
    • Ericksen and Olsen Cup Tests
    • Fukui Conical Cup Test
    • Hole Expansion Test
    • Forming Limit Diagram
  • Deep Drawing Defects
  • Solved Problems

16 High-Energy Rate Forming

  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals of HERF Process
    • Advantages and Limitations
  • Explosive Forming
    • Standoff or Unconfined Technique
    • Contact or Confined Technique
  • Electromagnetic Forming
  • Electrohydraulic Forming
  • High-Energy Rate Forging
  • Other HERF Methods
  • Solved Problems

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