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Aluminum Castings Engineering Guide

Aluminum Castings Engineering – Discover the advantages of aluminum casting, process engineering, design, and validation in this practical guide by Jagan Nath.


Chapter 1 – Aluminum Casting Applications

  • Introduction
  • Aluminum Casting Advantages and Applications
  • Aluminum Casting Limitations
  • Aluminum Casting Market Growth
  • Aluminum Conversions from Steel and Iron

Chapter 2 – Engineering Component Configuration

  • Design Development Disciplines and Interactions
  • Engineering of Components Design
  • Design and Process Validation and Production Release
  • Matrix of Design and Manufacturing Elements

Chapter 3 – Casting Process Options

  • Range of Aluminum Casting Processes
  • Process Cooling Rate and Microstructure
  • Why Sand Casting Work in Certain Aoolications

Chapter 4 – Overview of Casting Processes

  • Green Sand Casting Process
  • Air Set or No-Bake Molding Process
  • Vacuum Molding Process
  • Evaporative Foam Casting Process
  • Die Casting Process
  • Gravity Permanent Mold Process
    • High-Quality Casting Capability
    • Melt Treatment for Fine Microstructures
    • Metal Handling to Avoid Inclusions
    • High-Volume GPM Manufacturing Cell
    • Solidification and Feeding to Prevent Shrink Porosity
    • Semipermanent Molding
  • Low-Pressure Permanent Molding Process
    • Directional Solidification
    • Importance of Pressurization
    • Oxide Prevention
    • Low-Pressure Permanent Molding Cell Layout
    • Low-Pressure Permanent Molding Advantages
    • Use of Vacuum in Low-Pressure Permanent Molding
  • Counter Pressure Process
  • Squeeze Casting Process
  • Investment Casting
  • Rapid Prototype Casting Processes
    • Rapid Prototyping System
    • 3D Printing or Additive or Layered Manufacturing
    • Rapid Sand Casting Process
    • Rapid Die Casting Process
  • Cast Forge Hybrid Process
    • Cast Forge Process
  • Semisolid Metal Processes
    • Semisolid Metal
    • Thixoforming
    • The Slurry-on-Demand Process
    • Future Opportunities for Semisolid Metal
    • Further Research

Chapter 5 – Alloys and Heat Treatment Choices

  • Cast Alloys Designations
  • Alloying Elements and Alloy Characteristics
  • Alloys for Gravity and Low-Pressure Permanent Molds, Squeeze and Die Casting
  • Typical Tensile Properties of Permanent Molded Castings
  • Alloys for Die Castings
  • Typical Tensile Properties of Die Casting
  • Heat Treatment Designations
  • Typical Heat Treatment Cycles for Permanent Molded Castings
  • Product Functional Needs of Die Castings and Alloy Choices
  • Alloys for High-Vacuum Die Cast Structural Castings
  • Examples of Micrographs

Chapter 6 – Engineering Die Castings

  • Engineering Product Design
    • Parting Plane
    • Part Orientation
    • Drafts for Aluminum Die Castings
    • Shrink Factors and Linear Tolerances
    • Flatness Tolerances
    • Machine Stock
    • Slides, Pull-backs, or Moving Cores
    • Locators and Clamping Pads
    • Gate Pads
    • Design for Trimming
  • Process Engineering
    • Die Casting Process Elements and Cycles Times
    • Die Thermal Cycling and the Cooling Balance
    • Machine Hydraulic System
    • Shot Profiles and Significance of Plunger Velocities
    • Significance of Fraction Solid or Solid Fraction
    • Importance of Atomization
    • Heat Transfer Coefficient
    • Explanation of Die and Gate Temperatures
    • Metal Flow Analysis
    • Division of Casting into Segments
    • Gating Design Guidelines
    • Gating Design Steps
    • Check for Machine Capability – PQ2 Diagram
    • Design of Runners
    • Design of Overflows and Vents
    • Freeze Blocks
    • Computer Simulations for Flow Validation, Overflows and Vents Placement
    • Vacuum Die Casting and High-Vacuum Structural Die Casting
    • Local Squeeze Applications
    • Quality Problem Solving

Chapter 7 – Engineering of Gravity Permanent Mold Castings

  • Geometric Factors of Gravity Permanent Molding
    • Parting Plate and Part Orientation
    • Guidelines for Parting Plane and Part Orientation
    • Drafts
    • Shrink Factors or Mold Maker`s Shrink Rule
    • Dimension Tolerances
    • Locators and Clamping Pads
    • Gates and Feeder Pads
  • Process and Manufacturing Elements of Gravity Permanent Molding
    • Mold Materials and Special Inserts
    • Mold Mass, Shape, and Thickness
    • Mold Alignment
    • Ejection System and Mold Venting
    • Quick-Change Systems for Metal Cores (Pull-Backs)
    • Quick-Change Systems for Preheated Molds
  • Mold Coatings
    • Mold Coating Materials
    • Coating Application Guidelines
    • Coating Thickness Control
    • Cross-Hatching and Baring Out
    • Mold Coatings Maps
    • Mold Preparation Area Layout
  • Engineering of Cores and Core Boxes
    • Core Box Materials
    • Core Box Parting and Core Ejection
    • Core Prints
    • Core Blowing and Venting
    • Core Carriers
    • Core Mudding and Assembly
    • Core Setting Fixtures and Guide Pins
    • Automated Core-Setting and Auto Blow-Off
    • Safety with Robotic Core-Setting
  • Gravity Permanent Mold Gating and Feeding Principles
    • Feed Driven Castings
    • Fill Driven Castings
  • Pouring Systems
    • Importance of Pouring Volume Control
    • Automated Pouring Systems
    • Pouring Cup Shape and Materials
    • Oxide Entrainment, Filtration, and Skimmers
    • Pouring Cap Foil Removal
  • Mold Coating and Control
    • Central Closed-Loop Water System
    • Mold Cooling Schedule and Documentation
  • De-Coring and De-Gating
  • Casting Design for Heat Treatments
  • Cycle Time Planning and Analysis
    • Tipper Cycle Planning
    • Table Cycle Planning

Chapter 8 – Engineering of Low-Pressure Permanent Mold Castings

  • Engineering of Wheels
    • Technical Requirements of Wheel
    • Tooling Highlights
    • Design for Directional Solidification
    • Multiply Sprues for lager Wheels
    • Feeding and Solidification Analysis
    • Pressure Ramps
    • Heat Treatment, Stacking, Aging and Curing
    • Wheel Testing and Validation
  • Engineering of Feed-Driven Structural Casting
    • Critical Safety Suspension Casting
    • Front Knuckles
    • Front Lower Control Arms
    • Rear Lower Control Arms
    • Sand-Cored Suspension Castings
  • Fill-Driven Chassis Castings
    • Cored Lower Control Arms
    • Cored and Non-Cored Cradles and Cross Members
    • Gating Systems
    • Distortion, Straightening and Heat Treatment

Chapter 9 – Process Selection Guidelines

  • Markets, Products, Processes and Alloys
  • Product Function and Performance Factors
    • Geometric Factors
    • Mechanical Properties
    • Tooling Cost
    • Overall Cost
  • General Guide for Process Selection

Chapter 10 – Product Launch Process

  • Development Phases and Critical Elements
  • Product-Process Flow Diagram
  • Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
  • Engineering Specifications – Example
    • Example Product – Suspension Front Knuckle
    • Test Procedure and Requirements
  • Change Control and Revalidation Requirements
  • Instructions and Definitions
  • Process Control Plan or Manufacturing Plan
    • Purpose of Control Plan
  • Program Launch Manual


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Some usufuf figures from this book

Figure 3.1 – Range of aluminium casting processes using sand and metal molds

Figure 3.3 – Variations with second dendrite arm spasing (SDAS) in different processes

Figure 3.5 – Variation of yield and tensile strengths and elongations with dendrite arm spacing (DAS)

Figure 4.4 – Cold chamber die casting machine schematic

Figure 4.8 – Metal treatment system with a dosing furnace