# Design of Aluminium Structures according to Eurocode 9

Designers’ Guide to Eurocode 9 details the principles and application rules related to design aluminium structures according to Europe’s Normative references.

Designers’ Guide to Eurocode 9 by P. Tindall and T.Hoglund

### Introduction

### Chapter 1 General

- Scope
- Normative references
- Assumptions
- Distinction between principles and application rules
- Terms and definitions
- Symbols
- Conventions for member axes
- Specification for execution of the work

### Chapter 2 Basis of design

- Requirements
- Principles of limit state design
- Basic variables
- Verification by the partial factor method
- Design assisted by testing

### Chapter 3 Materials

- General
- Structural aluminium
- Connecting devices

### Chapter 4 Durability

### Chapter 5 Structural analysis

- Structural modelling
- Global analysis
- Imperfections
- Methods of analysis

### Chapter 6 Ultimate limit states

- Basis
- Resistance of cross-sections
- Example 6.1: tension resistance of a bar with bolt holes and an attachment
- Example 6.2: resistance of an I cross-section in compression
- Example 6.3: resistance of a class 4 hollow section in compression
- Example 6.4: bending moment resistance of a class 1 cross-section
- Example 6.5: bending moment resistance of a class 3 cross-section
- Example 6.6: bending moment resistance of a class 4 cross-section
- Example 6.7: bending moment resistance of a welded member with a transverse weld
- Example 6.8: cross-section resistance under combined bending and shear
- Example 6.9: cross-section resistance of a square hollow section under combined bending and compression

- Buckling resistance of members
- Example 6.10: buckling resistance of a compression member
- Example 6.11: buckling resistance of a member with a stepwise variable cross-section
- Example 6.12: lateral torsional buckling resistance
- Example 6.13: a member under major axis bending and compression
- Example 6.14: lateral torsional buckling of a member in bi-axis bending and compression

- Uniform built-up compression members
- Unstiffened plates under in-plane loading
- Example 6.15: resistance of an unstiffened plate under axial compression

- Stiffened plates under in-plane loading
- Example 6.16: resistance of an orthotropic plate under axial compression

- Plate girders
- Members with corrugated webs
- Example 6.17: plate girder in shear, bending and concentrated forces

### Chapter 7 Serviceability limit states

- General
- Serviceability limit states for buildings
- Example 7.1: vertical deflection of a beam

### Chapter 8 Design of joints

- Basis of design
- Intersections for bolted, riveted and welded joints
- Joints loaded in shear subject to impact, vibration and/or load reversal
- Classification of joints
- Connections made with bolts, rivets and pins
- Example 8.1: bolted connection

- Welded connections
- Hybrid connections
- Adhesive-bonded connections
- Other joining methods
- Example 8.2: welded connection between a diagonal and a chord member

### Chapter 9 Annexes to EN 1999-1-1

- Annex A – reliability differentiation
- Annex B – equivalent T stub in tension
- Example 9.1: resistance of equivalent T-stub

- Annex C – material selection
- Annex D – corrosion and surface protection
- Annex E – analytical models for stress–strain relationship
- Example 9.2: value of coefficients in the Ramberg–Osgood formula

- Annex F – behaviour of cross-sections beyond the elastic limit
- Annex G – rotation capacity
- Example 9.3: shape factors and rotation capacity

- Annex H – plastic hinge method for continuous beams
- Example 9.4: bending moment resistance if the plastic hinge method is used

- Annex I – lateral torsional buckling of beams and torsional or torsional flexural buckling of compression members
- Annex J – properties of cross-sections
- Example 9.5: lateral torsional buckling of an asymmetric beam with a stiffened flange

- Annex K – shear lag effects in member design
- Annex L – classification of joints
- Annex M – adhesive-bonded connections

### Chapter 10 Cold-formed structural sheeting

- Introduction
- Material properties, thickness, tolerances and durability
- Rounded corners and the calculation of geometric properties
- Local buckling
- Bending moment
- Example 10.1: the bending moment resistance of trapezoidal sheeting with a stiffened flange

- Support reaction
- Combined bending moment and support reaction
- Flange curling
- Other items in EN 1999-1-4
- Durability of fasteners