Fundamentals of aluminium metallurgy – Production, processing and applicatins / ed. Roger Lumley (2010)








Introduction to aluminium metallurgy

  • Aluminium as an engineering material
  • The development of aluminium alloys
  • Cast aluminium alloys
  • Wrought aluminium alloys
  • Production of aluminium
  • Uses of aluminium
  • Conclusion

Part I – Production and casting of aluminium and its alloys

Production of alumina

  • Introduction to the aluminium oxides
  • Al minerals – mining and processing
  • Alumina production processes
  • The Bayer alumina refinery
  • Alumina microstructure
  • Impurities
  • Production of speciality aluminas
  • Alumina production trend

Production of primary aluminium

  • Introduction
  • Raw materials used in the aluminium production process
  • Energy efficiency in the utilisation of carbon anodes
  • The carbon anodes
  • Electrolyte materials
  • The cathode and cathode materials
  • Current efficiency
  • Cell amperage increase
  • Cell lines
  • Health, environment and safety (HES)
  • Inert anodes
  • The past, present and future of primary aluminium production

Production of secondary aluminium

  • History of secondary aluminium
  • Sources of raw materials
  • Processing
  • Cost drivers
  • Future trends
  • Further reading
  • Reference

Ingot casting and casthouse metallurgy of aluminium and its alloys

  • Direct chill casting
  • Heat flow and solidification
  • Macrosegregation
  • Typical surface defects
  • Gas pressurised extrusion billet casting
  • Rolling slab technology
  • Special variants of DC casting
  • DC casting safety
  • Chain conveyor casting
  • Melt treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Notes

Casting of aluminium alloys

  • Introduction
  • Aluminium casting alloys
  • Microstructure control in aluminium foundry alloys
  • Filling the casting
  • Feeding and porosity
  • Casting processes
  • Summary

Quality issues in aluminum castings

  • Introduction
  • Standard molds
  • Effect of solidification time
  • Theoretical basis for the quality index
  • Effect of inclusions and porosity on quality
  • Fatigue failure
  • Sources of casting defects
  • Effect of metal treatment and transfer on quality
  • Possible improvements in fatigue life
  • Conclusion

Case studies in aluminium casting alloys

  • Introduction
  • The effect of the alloy specification range onmicrostructure and properties
  • An impurity that reduces castability and increasescasting defects
  • The effect of grain refinement on defect formation
  • The effect of excess titanium on foundry alloys
  • Selecting the right master alloy for grain refinement
    in terms of effectiveness and cost optimisation
  • Selecting the right master alloy for eutectic modification
    in terms of effectiveness and cost optimisation
  • Summary

High pressure die casting of aluminium and its alloys

  • History of high pressure die casting
  • The die casting process
  • Aluminium alloys used in die casting
  • Defects in die casting
  • Conclusion

Progress on the heat treatment of high pressure die castings

  • Introduction
  • Role of alloying elements during solution treatment
  • Role of alloying elements during age hardening
  • Application to industrially produced parts and
    commercial heat treatment facilities
  • Implications for redesign of high pressure die castings
  • Conclusion
  • Notes

Part II – Metallurgical properties of aluminium and its alloys

Work hardening in aluminium alloys

  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals of work hardening
  • Models of work hardening
  • Applications of work hardening models to industrial alloys
  • Commercial aspects of work hardening
  • Conclusion and future trends

Precipitation and solute clustering in aluminium: advanced characterisation techniques

  • Introduction
  • Al-Cu based alloys
  • Al-Cu-Mg based alloys
  • Al-Mg-Si based alloys
  • Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) based alloy
  • Precipitation in Al alloys under severe plastic deformation
  • Conclusion

Solute partitioning to enhance mechanical properties of aged aluminium alloys

  • Introduction
  • Solute partitioning through compositional change
  • Studies of underaged alloys
  • Secondary precipitation
  • Conclusion

Vacancies in aluminium and solute-vacancy interactions in aluminium alloys

  • Introduction
  • Experimental studies of vacancies and solute-vacancy interactions
  • Modelling
  • Conclusion

Modeling the kinetics of precipitation processes in aluminium alloys

  • Introduction
  • Physical processes controlling precipitation
  • Current approaches to modeling precipitation kinetics
  • Coupling precipitation and plastic deformation
  • Future trends and perspectives

Ultrafine-grained aluminium alloys: processes, structural features and properties

  • Introduction
  • Severe plastic deformation techniques used in processing of Al alloys
  • Producing ultrafine-grained aluminium alloys by means of SPD techniques
  • Mechanical properties of UFG Al alloys at room temperature
  • Innovation potential of UFG Al alloys
  • Conclusion

Design for fatigue crack growth resistance in aluminum alloys

  • Introduction
  • Background and current state of knowledge
  • Materials, processing, mechanical properties and fatigue crack growth testing
  • Fatigue crack propagation in the near-threshold regime
  • Fatigue crack propagation mechanisms in Regions II and III of crack growth
  • Kmax and stress ratio effects on fatigue crack growth
  • A dual parameter DK-Kmax approach to fatigue crack growth
  • Kmax sensitivity and data normalization for generating design curves
  • Conclusion

Fracture resistance in aluminium

  • Introduction
  • Fracture in uni-axial tension
  • Fracture in thin sheet: stretching and deep-drawing operations
  • Fracture in aluminium alloy castings
  • Fracture in high strength wrought alloys: fracture toughness
  • The fracture toughness of aluminium alloys: micro-structural aspects
  • Fracture in aluminium particulate metal-matrix composites
  • Effects of serrated yielding (dynamic strain-aging) on fracture
  • Future trends: optimised properties versus ‘fitness for purpose’

Corrosion and corrosion protection of aluminium

  • Introduction
  • General, galvanic and pitting corrosion
  • Localised corrosion: intergranular and exfoliation
  • Environmentally assisted cracking
  • Corrosion protection in the aircraft structure
  • Summary case study: corrosion of a C-130J Hercules aircraft wing
    trailing edge strip

Part III – Processing and applications of aluminium and its alloys

Joining of aluminium and its alloys

  • Introduction
  • Mechanical joining
  • Fusion welding
  • Solid state welding
  • Brazing
  • Adhesive bonding
  • Conclusion

Aluminium powder metallurgy

  • Introduction
  • The press and sinter powder metallurgy process
  • Sintering fundamentals
  • Sintering of aluminium
  • PM aluminium alloys and their applications
  • Future trends

Laser sintering and rapid prototyping of aluminium

  • Introduction
  • The skeleton
  • Infiltration
  • Dimensional changes
  • Conclusion

Aluminium sheet fabrication and processing

  • Introduction
  • Aluminium alloys and specifications
  • The aluminium sheet fabrication processing route and microstructure evolution
  • Parameters and metallurgical effects in Al alloy sheet processing
  • Integrated material and through-process modelling
  • Conclusion

Application of modern aluminium alloys to aircraft

  • Introduction
  • Drivers for materials selection and
    aluminum alloy product development for aircraft
  • Performance criteria and property requirements
    for primary structure of subsonic aircraft
  • Structure–property relationships
  • New products and recent manufacturing technologies
  • Conclusion

Materials selection and substitution using aluminium alloys

  • Introduction
  • Fundamental material selection strategies
  • Material selection for specific scenarios
  • Non-stationary fatigue-limited application
  • Multi-objective problems and numeric optimisation
  • Multiple objective material selection
  • Environmental consequence of material selection
  • Conclusion