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Aluminium products


Aluminium products manufacturing

The European aluminium indusry includes over 600 plants across 30 European countries (figure 1) [1]:


Figure 1 – European aluminium industry [1]

The main materials and products of the aluminum industry [2, 3]  are presented below.

Materials production

Figure  2 – It takes between four and five tonnes of bauxite to obtain about two tonnes of alumina which, in turn, will give one tonnes of aluminium [4]Figure 3 – The primary aluminium production process [5]

Figure 4 – Transportation of liquid aluminum [6]

The types of aluminium products

Unwrought products

Products obtained by casting without further hot or cold working:

Wrought products

Product that has been subjected to hot working and/or cold working:

Semi-finished products

Products that has undergone some processing and is supplied for further processing before it is ready for use.
Semi-finished products include wrought products and castings. It does not include ingots and billets.
The examples are:

Aluminium powder products

Products obtained from fine aluminium powder by compacting and sintering, often followed by hot pressing and/or subsequent working.

 Unwrought products, excepting castings

Figure 5 – Remelt aluminium ingots (EN 576).
Разливаются в открытые изложницы.
Чаще всего применяются в виде небольших слитков – чушек.

Figure 6 – Rolling ingots [5]
Прокатные слитки имеют  прямоугольное поперечное сечение (до 0,6 х 1,8 м).
Они могут быть длиной до 9 метров и весом до 30 тонн.
Прокатные слитки являются исходным материалом
для листовой алюминиевой продукции:
алюминиевых листов, лент и фольги.

Figure 7 – Direct-chill casting of aluminium extrusion ingots [4].
Исходный материал для  экструдированной продукции
(экструдированных профилей, прутков, труб, проволоки).
Большинство экструзионных слитков имеют цилиндрическую форму.

Figure 8 – Extrusion logs at entrance to the ingots heating furnace [8]

Figure 9 – A hot billet before loading into the extrusion press [8]


Figure 10 – Examples of grenn sand casting.
From left: Heat Exchanger, Hat Profile, Brake Calipers, Knuckles – Source: Alcoa [8]

Figure 11 – Permanent mould machined from steel [9]

Figure 12 – Cylinder head. Low pressure die casting [8]

Figure 13 – High pressure die casting:
Automotive transmission cases [8]

Sheet and plate

Figure 14 – Aluminium plate

Figure 15- Coiled aluminium sheets


Figure 16 – Aluminium foil


Figure 17 – Classification of aluminium extruded profiles (Laue, 1963) [11]


Figure 18 – Extrusion aluminium tubes: round, rectangle, square and hexagonal

Figure 19 – Schematic of porthole die hollow extrusion [11].
(a) Cross section showing metal flow into port streams and around the mandrel.
(b) Billet entrance face of the die set

Figure 20 – Location of welding joints in a square porthole tube [11]

Figure 21 – Principle of seamless tube extrusion [11]
Requires a special extrusion press.

Figure 22 – Aluminium Powder Metallurgy Manufacturing Process [12]


  2. Global Advisory Group GAG – Guidance “Terms and Definitions”.
  3. How to order aluminium according to European standards – 2019, 4th edition.
  4. The Aluminium Association of Canada
  5. How Aluminium is Made
  7. Tom Hauge, Hydro Aluminium, IHAA Symposium 2014, New York
  8. Tecalex Company
  9. Casting methods / Maufacturing //The Aluminium Automotive Manual – European Aluminium
  10. Aluminum Alloy Castings – Properties, Processes, and Applications / J. Gilbert Kaufman, Elwin L. Rooy – 2004
  11. Aluminum Extrusion Technology / P. Saha
  12. TALAT Lecture 1401 – Aluminium Powder Metallurgy /B. Verlinden, L. Froyen
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