Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications / eds. Christoph Leyens, Manfred Peters

2003
Titanium and its alloys have just half the weight of steels and Ni-based superalloys but high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. They are successfully applied in the aerospace and the chemical industries as well as in other markets such as architecture, chemical processing, medicine, power generation, marine and offshore, sports and leisure, and transportation.
This book is intended for students, materials scientists, engineers, and technicians from research, development, production, and design departments. It covers:

  • the metallurgical background
  • mechanical properties
  • oxidation behavior and oxidation protection
  • production and processing
  • titanium and its conventional alloys
  • titanium aluminides and titanium matrix composites
  • applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace and non-aerospace markets.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRIEF CONTENTS

Structure and Properties of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • The Metallurgy of Titanium
    • Crystal Structure
    • Plastic Deformation
    • β/α-Transformation
    • Diffusion
  • The Classification of Titanium Alloys
  • Metallographic Preparation of the Microstructure
  • The Microstructure of Titanium Alloys
  • Property Profiles of the Titanium Alloy Classes
  • The Alloying Elements of Titanium
  • The Conventional Titanium Alloys
    • αAlloys
    • Near-αAlloys
    • α+βAlloys
    • Metastable βAlloys
    • Textures in Titanium Alloys
  • Mechanical Properties of Titanium Alloys
    • Strength
    • Stiffness
    • Elevated Temperature Strength
    • Damage Tolerance and Fatigue
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Beta Titanium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Metallurgy and Processing
  • Mechanical Properties
    • Tensile Properties
    • Fracture Toughness
    • Fatigue (HCF)
    • Fatigue Crack Propagation (FCP)
  • Applications
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Orthorhombic Titanium Aluminides:
Intermetallics with Improved Damage Tolerance

  • Introduction
  • Physical Metallurgy: Crystal Structures, Phase Equilibria, and AlloyChemistry
  • Properties of Orthorhombic Titanium Aluminides
    • Physical Properties
    • Microstructures
    • Mechanical Properties
      • Tensile Properties
      • Creep Behavior
      • Fatigue Strength, Crack Growth Behavior, and Fracture Toughness
    • Oxidation and Environmental Embrittlement
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Titanium Aluminide Alloys: Alloy Design and Properties

  • Introduction
  • Constitution of -Titanium Aluminide Alloys
  • Phase Transformations and Microstructure
  • Micromechanisms of Deformation
    • Slip and Twinning Systems
    • Dislocation Multiplication
    • Twin Nucleation
    • Glide Resistance and Dislocation Mobility
  • Mechanical Properties
    • Grain Refinement
    • Effects of Alloy Composition
    • Solid Solution Effects due to Nb Additions
    • Precipitation Hardening
    • Creep Resistance
    • Crack Propagation and Fracture Toughness
    • Fatigue Behavior
  • Basic Aspects of Processing
    • Manufacture of Ingots
    • Casting
    • Dynamic Recrystallization on Hot Working
    • Development of Hot Working Routes
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Fatigue of Titanium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Influence of Microstructure
    • Commercially Pure Titanium, α Alloys
    • Near-α and α+β Alloys
    • β Alloys
  • Influence of Crystallographic Texture on Fatigue Life
  • Influence of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life
  • Influence of Mechanical Surface Treatments
  • Influence of Thermomechanical Surface Treatments
    • α Alloys
    • Near-α and α+β Alloys
    • β Alloys
  • Titanium Aluminides
  • Composite Materials
  • Summary
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Oxidation and Protection of Titanium Alloys and Titanium Aluminides

  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals of Oxidation of Metals
    • Thermodynamics of Oxidation
    • Oxidation Kinetics
      • Disorder Features in Oxides
      • Kinetics
    • Oxidation of Alloys
      • Selective Oxidation
      • Internal Oxidation
    • Oxidation Behavior of Titanium Alloys and Titanium Aluminides
      • Oxide Scale Formation
        • Ti-Al-O Phase Diagram
        • Oxide Scale Growth
        • Effect of Alloying Elements
        • Effect of Atmosphere
      • Dissolution of Non-metals in the Subsurface Zone of Alloys
        • Effect of Non-metal Dissolution on the Mechanical Properties
      • Measures to Improve Oxidation Resistance
        • Alloying Elements
        • Pre-oxidation
        • Coatings
      • Summary and Outlook
      • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Titanium and Titanium Alloys –
From Raw Material to Semi-finished Products

  • Introduction
  • Titanium Sponge
  • From Sponge to Ingot
  • Titanium, Titanium Alloys and Special Alloys
  • Processing to Semi-finished Products
  • Applications
  • Recycling
  • Summary and Outlook

Fabrication of Titanium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Machining of Titanium Alloys
  • Casting
  • Welding
    • Fusion Welding
    • Friction Welding
    • Electron Beam Welding
    • Laser Beam Welding
    • Spot Welding
    • Properties of Welded Structures
  • Superplastic Forming/Diffusion Bonding
  • Powder Metallurgy
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Investment Casting of Titanium

  • Titanium
  • Cast Alloys
  • Melting Units
  • Molding Materials
  • Casting Design
  • Finishing
    • Pickling (Chemical Milling)
    • Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)
    • Welding
  • Examples of Cast Parts

Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Superplasticity
  • Diffusion Bonding
  • The SPF Process
  • SPF-Material Investigations for Parameter Definition
  • SPF Tooling
  • Examples of SPF Components
  • SPF Forming Presses
  • SPF/DB Processing
  • SPF/DB Structures and Components
  • Summary
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Forging of Titanium

  • Introduction
  • General Properties and Applications
  • Thermomechanical Treatment of Titanium Alloys
    • Processing of Forging Stock
    • Forgings
    • Heat Treatment
  • Process Design
    • Geometric Requirements
    • Forged Components and Forging Equipment
    • Processing Window for Forgings
    • Finite Element Simulation
  • Examples for Process Optimization and Applications
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Continuous Fiber Reinforced Titanium Matrix Composites:
Fabrication, Properties and Applications

  • Introduction
  • Fabrication Processes
  • Properties
    • Strength and Stiffness
    • Creep Properties
    • Fatigue Properties
    • Anisotropy of TMCs
    • Thermal Residual Stresses
      • Influence of the Fiber Distribution on Residual Stresses
      • Residual Stresses and Fatigue
    • Dimensioning and Design with TMCs
    • Material Modeling
    • Applications
    • Summary and Outlook
    • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Titanium Alloys for Aerospace Applications

  • Introduction
  • Titanium Alloys in Aerospace
    • Airframe
    • Gas Turbine Engines
    • Helicopters
  • Space Applications
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Production, Processing and Application of γ(TiAl)-Based Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Constitution of γ(TiAl)-Based Alloys
  • Controlled Microstructures by Heat-Treatments
  • Processing of γ(TiAl)-Based Alloys
    • Ingot Production
    • Powder Processing and Compaction
    • Thermomechanical Processing
    • Forging
      • Forging of Large Ingots
      • Forging of Components
    • Single and Multi-Step Extrusion
    • Rolling of Sheet and Foil
    • Superplastic Forming
  • Further Processing
    • Joining
    • Machining
  • Requirements, Components, Tests and Applications
    • Gas Turbine Engines
    • Aerospace
    • Automotive Engines
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Non-Aerospace Applications of Titanium and Titanium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Chemical, Process and Power Generation Industries
    • Heat Exchangers and Condensers
    • Containers and Apparatus Manufacturing
    • Dimensionally Stable Anodes – Extractive Metallurgy
    • Petrochemical Refineries
    • Flue Gas Desulphurization
    • Steam Turbine Blades
    • Other Applications
  • Marine and Offshore Applications
  • Automotive Industry
  • Architecture
  • Sports and Leisure
    • Golf
    • Tennis Racquets, Baseball Bats and Pool Cues
    • Bicycles: Not only Frames
    • Scuba Diving Equipment
    • Expedition and Trekking
    • Knives
    • Winter Sport Equipment
    • Diverse Sports Applications
  • Medical Applications
  • Dental Implants
  • Jewelry and Fashion
  • Musical Instruments
  • Optical Industry
  • Information Technology
  • Safety and Security
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Titanium and its Alloys for Medical Applications

  • Introduction
  • Comparison of the Various Groups of Metallic Biomaterials
    • Corrosion Resistance
    • Biocompatibility
    • Bioadhesion (Osseointegration)
    • Mechanical Properties, Processability, Availability
  • Examples of Tailor-made Ti-based Composites
    • Structured Surfaces on Ti Materials with Special Mechanical Properties
    • Ti/Ceramic Composites with Special Biological Properties
    • Ti/Ceramic Composites with Special Physical Properties
    • Ti/Ceramic Composite with Improved Wear Resistance
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Titanium in Dentistry

  • Introduction
  • Clinically Relevant Properties of Titanium and Titanium Alloys in Dentistry
    • Corrosion Resistance
      • Resistance Against Fluorine
    • Biocompatibility
    • Physical properties
  • Use of Titanium and Titanium Alloys in Dentistry
    • Orthodontics
    • Prosthetics
    • Implantology
  • Processing of Titanium in the Dental Laboratory
    • Dental Melting and Casting Technology
    • CAD/CAM Technique
  • Summary
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Titanium in Automotive Production

  • Introduction
  • Possible Applications for Titanium in Automotive Production
    • Properties
    • Potential Uses
      • Applications in the Powertrain
      • Applications in the Chassis
      • Further Applications
    • Suspension Springs made from Titanium
    • Exhaust Systems
    • Conclusion
    • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

Offshore Applications for Titanium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Materials and Materials Requirements
    • Titanium Materials for Offshore Applications
    • Seawater Corrosion
    • Corrosion in Oil and Gas Environments
    • Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
    • Galvanic Corrosion
    • Fatigue
  • Fabrication
    • Welding
    • Cold Forming
    • Nitriding
  • Applications
    • Seawater Systems
    • Heat Exchangers
    • Hypochlorite Systems
    • Riser Pipes
    • Riser Taper Stress Joint
    • Sub-Sea Systems
  • Availability and Cost
    • Deliveries
    • Cost
  • Standards
  • Conclusion
  • Referenced Literature and Further Reading

PREVIEW