Light Alloys: Metallurgy of the Light Metals (2017) / Ian Polmear, David StJohn, Jian-Feng Nie, Ma Qian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRIEF CONTENTS

1 The Light Metals

General Introduction

  • Characteristics of light metals and alloys
  • Beryllium
  • Relative abundance
  • Trends in production and applications
  • Recycling

Production of Aluminium

  • Bayer process for alumina recovery
  • Production of aluminium by the Hall–Héroult process
  • Alternative methods for producing aluminium

Production of Magnesium

  • Electrolytic extraction of magnesium
  • Thermic processes

Production of Titanium

2 Physical Metallurgy of Aluminium Alloys

Work Hardening and Annealing

  • Strain-hardening characteristics
  • Substructure hardening
  • Forming limit curves
  • Textures
  • Secondary work-hardening effects
  • Annealing Behavior

Principles of Age Hardening

  • Decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions
  • The GP zones solvus
  • Precipitate-free zones at grain boundaries
  • Microalloying effects
  • Hardening mechanisms

Ageing Processes

  • Precipitation sequences
  • Clustering phenomena
  • GPB zones in Al–Cu–Mg alloys
  • Intermediate precipitates
  • Secondary precipitation

Corrosion

  • Surface oxide film
  • Contact with dissimilar metals
  • Influence of alloying elements and impurities
  • Crevice corrosion
  • Cavitation corrosion
  • Waterline corrosion
  • Metallurgical and thermal treatments

Mechanical Behaviour

  • Tensile properties
  • Toughness
  • Fatigue
  • Stress–corrosion cracking
  • Corrosion fatigue
  • Creep

3 Casting of Light Alloys

Introduction

Solidification of Light Alloys

  • Grain formation
    • Nucleation of the primary phase
    • Grain growth and morphology
  • Eutectic solidification

Grain Refinement

  • Factors influencing grain refinement
  • Grain refinement by refinement methods and inoculation with
    master alloys

    • Aluminium alloys
    • Magnesium alloys

Castability

  • Fluidity
  • Volumetric shrinkage
  • Porosity
  • Hot tearing

Casting Processes

  • Introduction
  • Melting
    • Aluminium alloys
    • Magnesium alloys
  • High-pressure die casting
    • Aluminium alloys
    • Die soldering
    • Heat treatment
    • Magnesium alloys
  • Semi-solid processing
  • Squeeze casting
  • Gravity and low-pressure casting processes
  • Sand and precision sand casting processes
    • Sand casting
    • Cosworth process
    • ILP Process

New Casting Processes

  • T-Mag
  • Ablation casting
  • Application of external fields
    • Melt conditioning
    • Ultrasound and magnetic fields
  • Twin-roll casting of magnesium
  • Joining

4 Wrought Aluminium Alloys

Production of Wrought Alloys

  • Melting and casting
  • Continuous casting with moving molds
  • Homogenization of DC ingots
  • Fabrication of DC ingots
  • Thermal treatment
    • Solution treatment
    • Quenching
    • Ageing
    • Thermomechanical processing

Designation of Alloys and Tempers

  • Nomenclature of alloys
  • Temper or heat treatment nomenclatures

Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys

  • Super-purity and commercial-purity aluminium (1xxx series)
  • Al–Mn and Al–Mn–Mg alloys (3xxx series)
  • Al–Mg alloys (5xxx series)
  • Miscellaneous alloys (8xxx series)

Heat-Treatable Alloys

  • Al–Cu alloys (2xxx series)
  • Al–Cu–Mg alloys (2xxx series)
  • Al–Mg–Si alloys (6xxx series)
  • Al–Zn–Mg alloys (7xxx series)
  • Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloys (7xxx series)
  • Lithium-containing alloys
    • Al–Cu–Li
    • Al–Li–Cu–Mg
    • Al–Li–Cu–Mg–Ag
    • Al–Li–Mg

Joining

  • Welding
    • Arc welding
    • Friction stir welding
    • Laser welding
  • Brazing
  • Soldering
  • Diffusion bonding

Special Products

  • Aircraft alloys
  • Automotive sheet and structural alloys
  • Shipping
  • Building and construction
  • Packaging
    • Canstock
    • Foil
  • Powder metallurgy products
    • Conventional processing
    • Spray forming
  • Aluminium alloy bearing
  • Superplastic alloys
  • Electrical conductor alloys
  • Electric storage batteries
    • Aluminium-air batteries
    • Aluminium-ion batteries

5 Cast Aluminium Alloys

Designation, Temper, and Characteristics of Cast Aluminium Alloys

  • US Aluminium Association System
  • British system

Alloys Based on the Aluminium–Silicon System

  • Modification
  • Binary Al–Si alloys
  • Al–Si–Mg alloys
  • Al–Si–Cu alloys

Alloys Based on the Aluminium–Copper System

Aluminium–Magnesium Alloys

Aluminium–Zink–Magnesium Alloys

6 Magnesium Alloys

Introduction to Alloying Behavior

Alloy Designations and Tempers

Zirconium-Free Casting Alloys

  • Alloys based on the magnesium–aluminium system
  • Magnesium–zinc based alloys
  • Magnesium–RE–zinc alloys
    • Mg–RE–Zn alloys
    • Mg–Y–Zn alloys

Zirconium-Containing Casting Alloys

  • Magnesium–zinc–zirconium alloys
  • Magnesium–RE–zirconium alloys
  • Magnesium–RE–zinc–zirconium alloys
  • Alloys based on the magnesium–silver system
  • Alloys based on the magnesium–thorium system

Wrought Magnesium Alloys

  • Introduction
  • Sheet alloys
    • Mg–Al based alloys
    • Mg–Zn based alloys
    • Mg–Mn based alloys
    • Mg–Li based alloys
    • Sheet texture
    • Sheet anisotropy
    • Sheet formability
  • Extrusion alloys
    • Mg–Al based alloys
    • Mg–Zn based alloys
    • Mg–Mn–RE based alloys
    • Mg–RE based alloys
    • Hydrostatic extrusion
  • Forging alloys

Electrochemical Aspects

  • Corrosion and protection
  • Cathodic protection

Fabrication of Components

  • Machining
  • Joining

Trends in Applications

7 Titanium Alloys

Introduction

  • Classification of titanium alloys
  • Basic principles of heat treatment

α-Alloys

  • General
  • Fully-α alloys
  • Near-α alloys
    • Alloys heat treated in α+β phase field
    • β-Heat treated alloys
  • Ti–Cu age-hardening alloy

α-β Alloys

  • Introduction to Ti-6Al-4V and other common α-β alloys
  • Annealing treatments
    • β-Annealing
    • Mill annealing
    • Recrystallization annealing
    • Duplex annealing
    • Stabilization annealing
    • Stress-relief annealing
  • Properties of annealed α–β alloys
  • Quenching from β phase field
  • Ageing of titanium martensites
  • Decomposition of metastable β during ageing
    • The ω phase
    • β Phase separation
    • Formation of equilibrium α phase
  • Solution treated and aged (STA) α–β alloys

β-Alloys

  • Basic physical metallurgy
  • β-Titanium aerospace alloys
  • Specialty alloys

Fabrication

  • Hot working
  • Superplastic forming
  • Cold working
  • Texture effects
  • Machining
  • Surface treatments
  • Joining
    • Fusion welding
    • Diffusion bonding
    • Brazing
  • Powder metallurgy processes

Titanium Alloy Casting

Engineering Performance

  • Tensile and creep properties
  • Fatigue properties
  • Fracture toughness
  • Corrosion
  • Stress–corrosion cracking
  • Corrosion fatigue

Applications of Titanium Alloys

  • Aerospace
  • General applications
    • Chemical and pharmaceutical equipment
    • Power generation
    • Automotive
    • Marine
    • Military hardware
    • Architectural
    • Sports
  • Dental and medical prostheses

8 Novel Materials and Processing Methods

Composites

  • Laminated composites
  • Sandwich panels
  • Metal–matrix composites
    • Aluminium alloys
    • Magnesium alloys
    • Titanium alloys

Metallic Foams

Rapid Solidification Processing

  • Aluminium alloys
  • Magnesium alloys
  • Titanium alloys

Quasicrystals

Amorphous Alloys

Mechanical Alloying

Physical Vapor Deposition

Nanophase Alloys

Titanium Aluminides

  • Ti3Al(α2)
  • TiAl(γ)
  • TiAl
  • Processing methods
  • Applications of titanium aluminides

Additive Manufacturing or 3D Printing

  • Metal powder and wire for AM
  • Scanning patterns and processing parameters
  • Surface roughness and defects
  • Microstructure and mechanical properties

PREVIEW