Состояние алюминиевого сплава: что это?
The mechanical properties of the same aluminum alloy - deformed or cast – can vary greatly depending on the type of treatment, которую получило изделие (полуфабрикат, образец) в ходе его изготовления или при дополнительной обработке:
This treatment forms a so-called state of the material - a set of mechanical properties, resulting from these or other combinations of heat and / or deformation treatments. Therefore, when discussing, selecting or ordering products from a particular aluminum alloy is required to be taken into account, specify and indicate the state of the material.
In the English technical literature to indicate the status of the material aluminum alloy - deformed and casting – is the word «temper». Term “temper” It came from the ancient practice of thermal hardening steels, but for aluminum alloys optionally associated with hardening. The literal translation of the German equivalent of the term «Werkstoffzustand» – “material condition”. The standards of Russia and CIS countries uses the term "state of the material", sometimes – simply “state”. The expression "the state of the aluminum alloy material", in our opinion, somewhat cumbersome, although the literal meaning of it is this. In Russian where something like "oil oil". therefore, It seems, without any loss of meaning can be used instead the expression "state of the aluminum alloy", and instead of a combination of "the state of the material ' – a "state".
Состояние сплава может быть изменено («настроено») так, чтобы он (сплав) максимально отвечал заданным требованиям. Treatment methods alloys to change their state divided into alloy, and heat-hardened alloys, Thermally no heat treatment.
alloys, hardenable by thermal treatment, derive their main "hardening" due to their thermal treatment, often in addition to the strain hardening, they receive as a result of their manufacturing. This applies to all series 2xxx alloys, 6xxx and 7xxx, that as a result of heat treatment may harden due to excess phase separation mechanism or aging. There are many possible states of these alloys, because the change in temperature of heat treatment and / or duration results in a different microstructure alloy and, Consequently, a wide variety of mechanical properties obtained.
Standing thermally alloys neuprochnyaemyh
In alloys, not hardenable by heat treatment, mechanical properties formed during hot and / or cold deformation processes during the manufacture of these articles and semifinished, as well as additional deformation treatments, such as, strain hardening the intermediate and, perhaps, final annealing. All this is true for alloy series 1xxx, 3xxx, 5xxx and most 4xxx alloys.
Symbol states aluminum alloys
Notation states deformable aluminum alloys, entered the American standard ANSI H35.1, в настоящее время признана во всем мире и принята международными стандартами: европейским EN 515 and "world» ISO 2107.
Designation of major states of alloys consist of the letters F, O, H, W и T, pointing to the primary product manufacturing process or a heat treatment.
Full alloy designation indicating its state looks, for example, alloys, strengthened by deformation processing, следующим образом: 1100-H14, 3003-O, 3004-H38, 5083-H116, 5456-H321, a thermally hardenable alloys – 2024-T62, 6061-T451, 7075-T7351.