Refractories for Aluminium: Electrolysis and the Cast House / A. Yurkov (2015)









The Properties of Refractory and Heat Insulation Materials

  • Classifications and Some Words About Quality Control
  • Density, Porosity, and Related Characteristics
  • Mechanical Characteristics
    • Compressive and Bending Strength
    • Modulus of Elastic, Hardness and Weibull Modulus
    • Elements of Fracture Mechanics
  • Thermomechanical Properties
    • Refractoriness
    • Hot Modulus of Rupture
    • Reheat Change. Permanent Linear Change on Reheating
    • High-Temperature Deformation. Characteristic Points and Softening Point
    • Сreep
  • Thermal Conductivity, Heat Capacity, and Temperature Conductivity
    (Heat Diffusivity)

    • Elements of Theory
    • The Measurement of Thermal Conductivity
    • Methods of Thermal Conductivity Measurements
      Based on the Principle of Stationary Heat Flow
    • Methods of Thermal Conductivity Measurements
      (Heat Diffusivity)
  • Thermal Coefficient of Linear Expansion, Thermal Strains, and
    Thermal Shock Resistance

    • Thermal Coefficient of Linear Expansion
    • Thermal Expansion of Refractory and
      (Heat Diffusivity)
    • Measurement of Linear Coefficients of ThermalExpansion
    • Thermal Strains
    • Thermal Shock
    • Thermal Shock Factors
    • Thermal Shock Resistance Measurements
  • Corrosion Resistance
    • Elements of Theory
    • Tests

Refractories and Carbon Cathode Materials for Aluminium Reduction Cells

  • Reduction of Aluminium.
    Elements of Reduction Technology.
    (Heat Diffusivity).
    Elements of Energy Balance and Heat Balance of Reduction Cell.
    Reduction Shop.
    Types of Reduction Cells
  • Lining of Reduction Cells. Preheating, Startup, and Operation.
    Retrofit of Cells and Tendencies.
    The Main Causes of Failures.
    Dry Autopsies

    • Brief Information on the Lining of Reduction Cells
    • Preheating and the Startup of Reduction Cells
    • Some Words About Service Life and the Main Reasons for Shutdowns
    • Dry Autopsies
  • Carbon Cathode Bottom Blocks
    • Types and Properties
    • Elements of Technology, Raw Materials, and Processing
    • Defects in Carbon Cathode Blocks
    • Testing and Characterization
    • Some Words on Grades of CarbonCathode Blocks
    • Some Words on the Structure of CarbonCathode Blocks in Connection with Grain Size, Composition, Sintering, and PoreSize Structure
    • Interaction of Carbon Cathode Blocks with the Steel Shell and the Collector Bars.
      Cracks Induced by Thermal Strains and Thermal Shock
    • (Heat Diffusivity)
    • Carbon Ramming Paste
  • Coatings of Carbon Cathode Blocks and NewCathode Materials. Drained Cathode
  • Side Lining
    • Side Lining Materials
    • (Heat Diffusivity)
    • Silicon Carbide Side Lining
    • (Heat Diffusivity)
    • Silicon Carbide Mortars, Ramming Mixesand Castables
      for Installation of SiC Side Lining
  • Refractory Barrier Materials of the Cell Lining.
    Dry Barrier Mixes and Bricks.
    Properties and Chemical
    The Processes During Service.
    Interactions with Infiltrated Electrolyte.
    Change of Properties.

    • Bricks and Dry Barrier Mixtures
    • Corrosion Resistance Testing
    • Chemical Interaction of Sodium Fluoride Salts
      with Alumina Silica Refractories
    • The Influence of Porosity and Permeability
      on Corrosion Resistance of Refractories
    • Some More Words on Barriers for ElectrolytePenetration
  • Heat Refractory Insulation Materials for the Lining of Reduction Cells
    • (Heat Diffusivity)
    • Perlite-Based Heat Insulation Materials
    • Vermiculite-Based Heat Insulation Materials
    • Calcium Silicate Heat Insulation Materials
    • Thermal Aging of Heat Insulation Materials at Service and
      Thermal Conductivity of Infiltrated Heat Insulation Materials

Refractories and Heat Insulation Materials for the Cast House

  • Cast House
  • Physical and Chemical Interaction of Refractories
    with Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys

    • Chemical Interaction of Aluminium and Aluminium-Based Alloys with Components of Refractories
    • Antiwetting Admixtures to AluminaSilica Refractories
    • Wetting of Alumina Silica Refractoriesby Molten Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys
    • Some Words on Corrosion Mechanism
    • Tests for Corrosion Resistance
  • Refractory Materials
  • Elements of Lining Design
    • Some Words on Drying and Preheatingof Furnaces
  • Melting and Holding Furnaces
  • Induction Furnaces, Ladles
    • Ladles
  • (Heat Diffusivity), Casting Equipment.
    Elimination of Asbestos-Containing Materials

    • (Heat Diffusivity)
    • Ceramic Foam Filters

Refractories for Anode Baking Furnaces

  • Lining