Applications of aluminum

 

Где и как применяют алюминий?

In our time, the world produces more 50 million tons of aluminum per year, for example, c 2008 year, according to the American Aluminum Association - 53 million tons.

  • Where did all this goes aluminum?
  • В каких отраслях промышленности применяется?
  • Где мы с ним сталкиваемся в повседневной жизни?

Aluminum consumption per capita

Per capita consumption of aluminum in the developed world as of 1997 year shown in the figure below.


Aluminum consumption per capita in Japan, США и Европе (1997 год) [4]

Consumption in industry and life

The figure below shows the eight sectors of industry and construction, in which the use of aluminum occurs particularly active. The percentages of the various sectors of industry in total consumption represented by statistics of the International Institute for aluminum 2007 year. Since, I think, the overall picture has not changed, and these data are quite relevant.

primenenie-alyuminiyaПрименение алюминия в готовой промышленной продукции [1]

The main industries, which are actively used aluminum, are:

  • Construction
  • packaging products
  • Electrical industry
  • transportation engineering
  • Manufacture of machinery and equipment
  • Production of goods for everyday life
  • powder metallurgy
  • Killed steel in the steel industry

Construction

Aluminum windows and facades

The main aluminum alloys, which find use in the construction industry, are alloys 6063 and 6060, and Alloy 6082 (в Европе) и сплав 6061 (в Северной Америке). Они обладают довольно высокой прочностью (6082 и 6061 - to 400 МПа) и хорошей коррозионной стойкостью.

Оконные алюминиевые профили с терморазвязкой (сплавы 6060/6063)

The most important design characteristics aluminum, которые определяют применение алюминия как материала для оконных и дверных рам:

  • прочность для обеспечения жесткости и безопасности;
  • способность принимать сложные формы (обеспечивается экструзией);
  • привлекательный внешний вид;
  • corrosion resistance;
  • minimal need for maintenance.

Навесной фасад с алюминиевым каркасом (сплавы 6060/6063)


Stand sections, facade ryhelnыy

The aluminum roof and aluminum cladding of buildings

Decorative and protective profiled facing materials are frequently made from rolled aluminum sheets. Various kinds of decorative and protective coatings make them ideal materials for use as a roofing material.

Application for roofing and cladding of buildings provide the following aluminum properties:

  • low weight, благодаря низкой плотности;
  • стойкость к воде;
  • corrosion resistance;
  • decorative appearance.

aluminum roofing

Transport

Aluminum in cars

The average weight of the aluminum in passenger cars in Europe 2006 It was about 118 kg and continued to increase. Его доля в различных компонентах и деталях автомобилей составляет (в килограммах на один автомобиль):

  • блоки цилиндров двигателей: 40,3
  • трансмиссия: 16,3
  • chassis, подвеска и управление: 12,5
  • wheel: 17,7
  • теплообменник: 12,3
  • тормоза: 3,7
  • кузов: 6,8
  • тепловые экраны: 1,4
  • бамперы: 2,8
  • другие компоненты: 3,9.

The aluminum cylinder block Vehicle

Aluminum car wheel rim

Применение алюминия для изготовления автомобильных деталей обусловлено следующими его свойствами:

  • низкая плотность;
  • прочность;
  • жесткость;
  • вязкость;
  • стоимость;
  • corrosion resistance.


Aluminum vehicle frame

Aluminum alloys for trucks

 

Алюминиевые сплавы для автомобильных цистерн [5]


Производство алюминиевых автомобильных цистерн [5]


Алюминиевые сплавы для кузовов самосвалов [5]


Производство алюминиевых кузовов самосвалов [5]

 


Алюминиевые сплавы для автомобильных фургонов [5]


Алюминиевые сплавы для шасси грузовых автомобилей [5]

Aluminum in car building

Design Intercity Express high-speed train
of aluminum extrusions – Germany, 1992


Алюминиевый вагон городского рельсового транспорта [7]


Грузовой алюминиевый вагон для перевозки угля [7]

Aluminum in shipbuilding


Aluminum patrol boat


Круизный лайнер с алюминиевой надстройкой [5]


Алюминиевая яхта-катамаран [5]

Aluminum alloys for aircraft

The first airplane the Wright brothers in 1903 he was mostly wooden and aluminum engine.

Among aluminum alloys, which are used in aircraft dominated high strength wrought alloys, such as , alloy 2024 (содержащий медь и магний) и сплав 7075 (содержащий магний, цинк и немного меди). Most of the aluminum alloys, which are used in aircraft, and their non-welded are combined in mainly rivets.

The figures below show the use of the series 2xxx alloys for airplane fuselage manufacture and 7xxx series alloys - for wings.

(a)

(б)

Применение алюминиевых сплавов в самолетостроении:
a – 7xxx series alloys for fuselage and b – сплавы серии 2ххх для крыльев [2].


Airbus A380

Основные требования к алюминиевым сплавам в аэрокосмической промышленности:

  • низкая плотность;
  • high strength;
  • точность механической обработки;
  • corrosion resistance;
  • cost of.

space technology

first, who understood the enormous potential of aluminum for space, He was a great writer and the writer Jules Verne. In his novel "Journey to the Moon" from back in the 1865 year a detailed description of a rocket made of aluminum.

Aluminum alloys for spacecraft

Housing Sputnik, which was launched in October 1957 года, It was made of aluminum-magnesium alloy with a magnesium content AMg6 6 %. Aluminum-magnesium alloys remain the primary material for the manufacture of shells missiles. In the inner compartments missiles used duralumin and aluminum alloys.


The first artificial space object – Soviet Sputnik 1

In the last decades of the 20th century in the spacecraft began to use aluminum-lithium alloys. Lithium density is only 0,533 g / cm3 - it is lighter than water. lithium aluminum additives in an amount up to 2,5 % reduce the density of aluminum alloy , as well as improve its modulus of elasticity. So, alloy 8090 It has a density 10 % below, and modulus of elasticity 11 % higher, than the popular alloys in aircraft 2024 and 2014. The figure below shows the wheel rover Curiosity made of aluminum alloy 7075.

 

Wheel rover Curiosity made of aluminum alloy 7075-T7351

Aluminum is also used as a binder in composites boroalyuminievyh, which is now also used in space technology.


Boroaluminum composite (40 % boron fibers)

Aluminum powder - propellant component

Высокая химическая активность алюминия дает возможность применять его в составе ракетного топлива для твердотопливных ускорителей в разрабатываемой NASA системе космических запусков (SLS).

The rocket boosters aluminum powder and perchlorate of ammonia are connected together using a special binder. This mixture, similar to the material eraser, помещается затем в стальной корпус [3].

When this mixture illuminates, perchlorate oxygen from ammonia coupled with the aluminum to form aluminum oxide, aluminum chloride, water vapor and nitrogen gas, as well as with the release of huge amounts of energy.

Алюминий входит в состав твердого топлива для ракетных ускорителей NASA [3]

Packaging products

Rolled aluminum - and tape foil - used in packaging of dry and liquid products. Aluminum packaging accompanies us throughout our lives – this is, for example, aluminum cans and bottles, foil packaging in food and medicine. Aluminum has a low density, compatibility with food and drink and attractive appearance. Это делает его идеальным материалом для различных видов упаковки: жестких (банки) и мягких (фольга).

Алюминиевые банки для упаковки пищевых продуктов [6]

Aluminum cans

Made of aluminum 75 % beverage cans and 15 % containers for aerosols. Aluminum cans provide a significant reduction of packaging weight when compared to similar steel cans.

Can body is made from a series of alloy 3000 (алюминиево-марганцевые сплавы), which after landing deep rolled to a thickness of the wall 0,27 mm.

Banks cover is 25 % her weight. It is made of a more durable aluminum-magnesium alloy. Built in a jar rychag-“opener”, which is attached to the can on the integral rivet, another consists of aluminum-magnesium alloy. This rivet is rolled from the body of the cover during its manufacture.


Aluminum cans for packaging of beer and soft drinks

Требования к алюминиевым сплавам для упаковочного сектора промышленности:

  • низкая плотность;
  • прочность;
  • хорошая формуемость;
  • совместимость с продуктами и напитками;
  • декоративность (способность к нанесению рисунков и надписей);
  • cost of.

Wrapping foil

Aluminum foil is typically made of a series of technical grades of aluminum 1000. The properties of aluminum, which allow its use as a material for the manufacture of foil, следующие:

  • прочность и непроницаемость для жидкостей и газов при малой толщине;
  • низкая плотность;
  • термическая проводимость;
  • теплостойкость;
  • стойкость к проникновению газов и жидкостей;
  • совместимость с продуктами и напитками;
  • aesthetic and decorative potential.

Aluminum foil packaging

Wires and cables

The high electrical conductivity of the aluminum series of stamps 1000, as well as aluminum alloys series 8000, It makes them very suitable for electrical conductors. Алюминиевые проводники применяют в следующих случаях:

  • распределительные электрические подстанции;
  • силовые системы высотных зданий;
  • высоковольтные линии электропередач;
  • большинство подземных линий электропередач;
  • Power cables for industrial applications.

Большая часть алюминия в электротехнической промышленности применяется в виде кабелей (8 из 13 %). However, it is used also in the form of electric buses for equipment with high current, as well as for electricity supply of large buildings. Moreover, cables for industrial, commercial and residential buildings may contain many insulated conductors, are placed in a common protective aluminum sleeve.

Requirements for aluminum, который применяется для электротехнических приложений:

  • приемлемая стоимость;
  • достаточно высокая электрическая проводимость;
  • corrosion resistance;
  • strength.

cars and equipment

Heating and ventilation systems

Series aluminum alloys 3000, 5000 and 6000 have good thermal conductivity. In combination with high strength, these alloys are good choices for use in heating and ventilation systems. These systems include the following components, в которых применяют алюминиевые сплавы:

  • компрессоры;
  • конденсеры/испарители;
  • расширительные клапаны;
  • вентиляторы;
  • tubes.


The properties of aluminum, которые важны для отопительных и вентиляционных систем:

  • высокая теплопроводность;
  • высокий контактный коэффициент;
  • малая плотность;
  • High resistance to corrosion.

Consumer goods

Aluminum in large quantities used in the manufacture of various components, parts and casings of many consumer products, that surround our lives - household goods, for example, refrigerators, morozylnykov, dishwashers. Refrigerators and freezers comprise chillers, that, as mentioned above, also contain a significant amount of aluminum. Важными свойствами алюминия для потребительских товаров являются:

  • эстетические свойства;
  • corrosion resistance;
  • прочность;
  • высокая теплопроводность (для холодильных агрегатов).

medicine

Equipment and tools

Anodized aluminum is widely used for products and parts in the medical and dental equipment, в том числе:

  • Interior finish wards and medical offices
  • Instruments, that can withstand regular sterilization in an autoclave
  • hospital beds, stretchers, wheelchairs and other means for moving patients
  • Equipment for medical oxygen
  • Dental equipment and instruments
  • X-ray machines
  • Dialysis equipment.

drug Packaging

Aluminum foil is unsurpassed barrier, which protects drugs from microorganisms, sunlight, oxygen and other gases. Therefore, this foil is the basic material for the protective packaging of medicines and pharmaceutical materials.

Medicinal tablets in aluminum packaging

powder metallurgy

Powder metallurgy - a process, which allows the product as a complex, and quartered form with minimal dimensional tolerances, thus eliminating the subsequent machining.

Important technical requirements, которые предъявляются к алюминиевым порошкам являются:

  • низкая плотность;
  • the ability to perceive different types of finishes, for example, окраски;
  • thermal conductivity.

steel deoxidation

To remove oxygen from the molten steel to the melt is added the so-called scavengers. As a deoxidizer often used aluminum, as well as manganese and ferrosilicon.

Typically, aluminum is added to the molten steel in the form of a 10-kilogram bars. For one ton of steel deoxidation requires about one kilogram of aluminum. Aluminum grades Deoxidation sets GOST

The properties of aluminum, которые определяют его применение в металлургической промышленности как раскислителя стали:

  • активно реагирует с кислородом в расплавленной стали;
  • стоимость;
  • effect on steel metallurgy.

Sources:

  1. WellMet, University of Cambridge, July 2010
  2. Lightweight Materials—Understanding the Basics /ed. F.C. Campbell – ASM International, 2012
  3. https://blogs.nasa.gov/Rocketology/tag/aluminum/
  4. TALAT 1100.01
  5. Aluminium in Commercial Vehicle – European Aluminium Association – 2011
  6. TALAT 3710