Aluminum – lightweight construction material
Low density is one of the main advantages of aluminum over other structural metals.
The density of non-ferrous metals
Density of aluminum in comparison with the density of other light metals:
- aluminum: 2,70 g / cm3
- titanium: 4,51 g / cm3
- magnesium: 1,74 g / cm3
- beryllium: 1,85 g / cm3
Density of material
unit of measurement
Density of aluminium and any other material – it is a physical quantity, determining the mass ratio of the material to the occupied volume.
- The unit of density measurement in the SI dimension adopted kg / m3.
- For the density of aluminum is often used more visual dimension g / cm3.
aluminum Density kg / m3 thousandfold, than g / secm3.
To estimate the amount of material per unit volume is often used such a system does not, but more visual unit as "proportion". Unlike density specific gravity is not an absolute unit of measurement. The thing is, it depends on the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration g, which varies depending on the location on Earth.
Density dependence on temperature
The density of the material depends on the temperature. Typically, it decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, specific volume - volume per unit mass - increases with increasing temperature. This phenomenon is called thermal expansion. It is usually expressed as a coefficient of thermal expansion, which gives the change in length per degree of temperature, for example, mm / mm / ° C. Change in length is easier to measure and use, than the change in volume.
The specific volume of the material – this value, inverse density. It indicates the amount of mass and per unit volume is of dimension m3/kg. According to the specific volume of material it is convenient to observe during the heating-cooling change the density of materials.
The figure below shows the change in the specific volume of various materials (pure metal, alloy and amorphous material) with increasing temperature. Flat areas schedules - is the thermal expansion of all types of materials in the solid and liquid state. When pure metal melts, there is a jump in the increase in specific volume (decrease in density), the alloy melting - rapid increase as its melting temperature range in. Amorphous materials upon melting (at the glass transition temperature) increase their coefficient of thermal expansion .
Density of aluminium
The theoretical density of aluminum
The density of the chemical element is determined by its atomic number and other factors, such as the atomic radius and the atomic packing method. TThe theoretical density of aluminum at room temperature (20 ° C) based on the parameters of its atomic lattice is:
- 2698,72 kg / m3.
Density of aluminum: solid and liquid
The graph of the dependence of the density of aluminum depending on temperature is shown in the figure below :
- With increasing temperature decreases density of aluminum.
- decreases abruptly at the transition from solid aluminum in the liquid state its density with 2,55 to 2,34 g / cm3.
The density of the aluminum in the liquid state, – melted pure aluminum 99,996 % – at various temperatures is shown in Table.
Effect of alloying
Differences in the density of different aluminum alloys caused by the fact, they contain different alloying elements in the different amounts. On the other hand, Some alloying elements lighter than aluminum, other – heavier.
Alloying elements are lighter than aluminum:
- silicon (2.33 g / cm³),
- magnesium (1.74 g / cm³),
- lithium (0.533 g / cm³).
Alloying elements are heavier than aluminum:
- iron (7.87 g / cm³),
- manganese (7.40 g / cm³),
- copper (8.96 g / cm³),
- zinc (7.13 g / cm³).
The effect of alloying elements on the density of aluminum alloys is shown by the graph in the figure below .
Lightest and heaviest aluminum alloys
- One of the lightest aluminum alloy is foreign casting alloy 518.0 (7,5-8,5 % magnesium) – 2,53 g per cubic centimeter . Domestic alloy AMg11 (AL22) contains even more magnesium – from 10,5 to 13,0 %. therefore, Need to think, he is even easier, but we have no exact data!
- The heaviest aluminum alloys are foreign casting alloys 222.0 and 238.0 with a nominal copper content 10 %. Their nominal density – 2,95 g per cubic centimeter .
- Lightest deformable alloy – aluminum lithium alloy 8090 with nominal lithium content 2,0 %. Its nominal density – 2,55 g per cubic centimeter .
- The heaviest deformable aluminum alloys – B95 alloy and foreign alloy 7175: 2,85 g per cubic centimeter .
The density of industrial aluminum alloys
The density of aluminum and aluminum alloy, which are used in industry, presented in the table below for annealed condition (O). To a certain extent, it depends on the state of the alloy, especially for thermally hardenable aluminum alloys.
Influence of alloying elements of aluminum alloys on the density and Young's modulus 
The most famous are low density aluminum-lithium alloys.
- Lithium is the lightest metal element.
- Lithium density at room temperature is 0,533 g / cm³ – this metal can float in water!
- Each 1 % lithium aluminum decreases its density 3 %
- Each 1 % lithium aluminum increases the modulus of elasticity in 6 %. It is very important for the aircraft and space technology.
Popular industrial aluminum-lithium alloys are alloys 2090, 2091 and 8090:
- Nominal content of lithium in the alloy 2090 is 1,3 %, and a nominal density of - 2,59 g / cm3.
- In the alloy 2091 nominal content of lithium 2,2 %, and a nominal density of - 2,58 g / cm3.
- In the alloy 8090 when the content of lithium 2,0 % density is 2,55 g / cm3.
Table P1 – Nominal density of deformable grades of aluminum and aluminum alloys according to GOST 4784-97
Table P2 – Nominal density of foreign wrought aluminum alloys 
1. Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, ASM International, 1993.
2. FUNDAMENTALS OF MODERN MANUFACTURING – Materials, Processes, and Systems /Mikell P. Groover – JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., 2010
3. TALAT 1501
4. GOST 4784-97