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Industrial and Process Furnaces

Principles, Design and Operation

by Peter Mullinger and Barrie Jenkins
The book “Industrial and Process Furnaces” provides a comprehensive reference to all aspects of furnace operation and design.

industrial and process furnaces

PREVIEW

Chapter 1 – Introduction

  • What is a furnace?
    • Furnace outline
    • Furnace classification
    • Principle objectives of furnace designers and operators
  • Where are furnaces used? Brief review of current furnace applications and technology
    • Ceramics, brick making and pottery
    • Cement and lime
    • Glass making
    • Metal ore smelting
    • Metal refining
    • Flash and fluid bed furnaces
    • Metal physical processing
    • Incinerators and resource recovery furnaces
    • Furnaces with reducing atmospheres
    • Oil refining and petrochemical furnaces
  • Drivers for improved efficiency
  • Concluding remarks

Chapter 2 – The combustion process

  • Simple combustion chemistry
    • The complete oxidation of carbon
    • The complete oxidation of hydrogen
    • The incomplete oxidation of carbon
    • The oxidation of carbon monoxide
  • Combustion calculations
  • Chemical reaction kinetics
    • Types of reactions
    • Reaction rate theory
    • Reaction rate behaviour
    • Burning droplets and particles
  • The physics of combustion
    • The role of primary air
    • The role of swirl flows
    • Turbulence in jets
    • Secondary flow aerodynamics
    • Effect of excess air on fuel consumption
    • Multiple burner installations

Chapter 3 – Fuels for furnaces

  • Gaseous fuels
    • Properties of natural gas
    • Manufactured gas
    • Wobbe number or index
    • Flammability limits
      • Calculation of the flammable limits for mixtures of gases
      • Influence of temperature and pressure on the limits
    • Flame radiation from gaseous fuels
  • Liquid fuels
  • Solid fuels
    • Ash
  • Waste fuels
  • Choice of fuel
    • Furnace performance
      • Heat transfer
      • Furnace atmosphere
      • Flexibility of operation
      • Effect of ash
      • Refractory life
      • Fuel cost and security of supply
      • Fuel handling system capital and running costs
    • Safety
    • Emissions
    • Solid fuel bibliography

Chapter 4 – An introduction to heat transfer in furnaces

  • Conduction
    • Steady state conduction
    • Transient conduction
      • Analytical approach
      • Numerical approach
    • Convection
      • Dimensional analysis
      • Application to convective heat transfer
      • Evaluating convective heat transfer coefficients
      • High temperature convective heat transfer
    • Radiation
      • Physical basics of radiative exchange
      • Emissivity and absorptivity
      • View factors
        • Equivalent grey surface
      • Mean beam length
    • Electrical heating
      • Resistance heating
        • Direct resistance heating
        • Indirect resistance heating
        • Arc heating
        • Electrode devices
        • Electrodeless devices
      • Induction heating
      • Dielectric heating
      • Infrared heating
    • Appendix 4A Tables of emissivity data

Chapter 5 – Flames and burners for furnaces

  • Types of flame
  • Premixed flames
  • Turbulent jet diffusion flames
  • Heterogeneous combustion
    • Atomisation of liquid fuels and pulverisation of coal
    • The importance of drop and particle size
  • Function of a burner and basics of burner design
    • The essential importance of heat flux profiles
    • Flame stabilisation
  • Gas burners
    • Premixed burners
      • Effect of excess air (mixture ratio) on flame temperature
      • Radiant wall burners
      • Use of premix burners in low NOx applications
      • Safety issues with premix burners
      • Size limitations
    • Turbulent jet diffusion burners
    • Precessing jet diffusion burners
    • Oil burners
      • Turndown
      • Atomisers
        • Pressure jet atomisers
        • Twin fluid atomisers
      • Pulverised coal burners
      • Furnace aerodynamics
      • Burner and furnace air flow patterns
        • Single burner systems
          • Package burner installations
          • Rotary kilns and driers, etc.
        • Multiple burner systems
        • Combustion air duct design
        • Common windbox and plenum design
        • Combustion system scaling
        • Example of combustion system scaling
      • Furnace noise
        • Combustion roar
        • Nozzle and turbulent jet noise
        • Fan noise
        • Pipe and valve noise
        • Furnace noise attenuation
        • Combustion driven oscillations

Chapter 6 – Combustion and heat transfer modelling

  • Physical modelling
    • Thring-Newby parameter
    • Craya-Curtet parameter
    • Becker throttle factor
    • Curtet number
    • Relationship between scaling parameters
    • Determining the required model flows
    • Applying the scaling parameter
    • Applying a post-measurement correction
  • Mathematical modelling
    • Simple well-stirred furnace models
    • Long furnace models
    • Two- and three-dimensional zone models
    • Computational fluid dynamics models
      • Gridding of CFD models
      • Convergence of CFD models
    • Particle drag in combustion systems
  • Application of modelling to furnace design

Chapter 7 – Fuel handling systems

  • Gas valve trains
    • Safety shutoff systems
      • Double block and bleed
      • Leak testing and proving
    • Fuel oil handling systems
      • Storage, pumping and heating
      • Oil valve trains
    • Pulverised coal handling and firing systems
      • Raw coal bunkers and feeders
      • Coal grinding and drying
        • Coal drying characteristics
      • Coal mills
        • Ball mills
        • Vertical spindle mills
        • High speed mills
      • Coal mill grinding capacity
        • Coal fineness
        • Coal dryness
      • Pulverised coal grinding and firing systems
        • Direct and indirect firing systems
        • Direct firing
        • Semi-direct firing
        • Indirect firing
        • Semi-indirect firing
      • Coal system drying capacity
      • Coal firing system fans
      • Fine coal storage
      • Fine coal feeding and conveying
        • Volumetric feeders
        • Mass flow feeders
      • Pulverised coal conveying
    • Waste fuel handling
      • Waste gas fuel handling
      • Waste liquid fuel handling
      • Solids waste fuel handling
        • Size distribution
      • Environmental benefits and health hazards of waste fuel utilisation
    • Applicable codes and standards

Chapter – 8 Furnace control and safety

  • Process control
    • Basic furnace control strategies
      • Control of product temperature
      • Fuzzy logic and rule-based systems
    • Furnace instrumentation
      • Temperature measurement
      • Heat input measurement
        • Flow measurement of liquid and gaseous fuels
        • Calorific value measurement
        • Solid fuels
      • Determination of excess air
    • Flue gas analysis
      • Extractive gas sampling systems and analysers
        • Sample probe installation
        • Cold gas extractive systems
        • Hot wet gas extractive systems
        • Dilution extractive systems
      • In-situ systems
        • Dust monitors
        • Oxygen analysers
        • Cross-duct analysers
      • Combustion control
      • Ensuring furnace safety
        • Risk factors in furnace operation
        • Furnace start-up
          • Critical time for ignition during furnace start-up
        • Operation with insufficient combustion air
          • Corrective action for unintentional sub-stoichiometric operation
        • Flame quenching
        • Eliminating ignition sources
      • Burner management systems
        • Safety requirements for burner management systems
        • False trips
        • Achieving acceptable safety standards with programmable logic controller burner management systems
        • Choosing an appropriate safety integrity level
        • Determining the safety integrity level of the BMS system
        • Flame detectors

Chapter 9 – Furnace efficiency

  • Furnace performance charts
  • Mass and energy balances
    • On-site measurement
      • Flue gas sampling and analysis
      • Calibration and errors in plant instrumentation
    • Constructing mass and energy balances
  • Energy conversion
    • Low and high grade heat
    • Exergy and pinch point analysis
  • Heat recovery equipment
    • Recuperative heat exchangers
    • Regenerative heat exchangers
    • General heat exchanger design procedure
  • Identifying efficiency improvements

Chapter 10 – Emissions and environmental impact

  • Formation of carbon monoxide
  • Formation of nitrogen oxides
    • Thermal NOx formation
    • Fuel NOx formation
    • Prompt NOx formation
    • NOx modelling
  • Formation of sulphur oxides
  • Formation of intermediate combustion products
    • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
    • PCBs, dioxins and furans
  • Particulate emissions
    • Formation of soot
    • Formation and composition of fuel ash
    • Non-combustible volatile cycles
  • Environmental control of emissions
    • Prevention and abatement of emissions
      • Pre-flame control
      • In-flame control
      • End-of-pipe control
    • Dispersion modelling

Chapter 11 – Furnace construction and materials

  • Basic performance requirements of the furnace structure
    • Basic construction methods
    • Brick lining
    • Monolithic linings
      • Castable refractory
      • Traditional installation of castable refractory
      • Installation of castable refractory by gunning
      • Drying and curing of cast and gunned refractory
      • Mouldable and rammable refractories
    • Furnace steelwork
    • Furnace roof construction
    • Furnace cooling systems
  • Practical engineering considerations in the use of refractories
  • Ceramic refractory materials
    • Testing of refractories
    • Properties and uses of refractories
      • Silica and siliceous refractories
      • Alumina and aluminous refractories
      • Chromite/magnesite/alumina refractories
      • Dolomite refractories
      • Zircon and zirconia refractories
      • Carbon refractories
      • Insulating refractories
    • Heat resisting and refractory metals
      • Effect of elevated temperature on metal properties
      • High temperature alloys
        • Service temperature
        • the material
        • Proprietary high nickel alloys
      • Practical engineering considerations in the use of high temperature metals
      • Concluding remarks
      • Selection of relevant standards
      • Appendix 11A General properties of selected refractory materials

Chapter 12 – Furnace design methods

  • Introduction
    • Design constraints
    • Cost of design changes
  • Conceptual design
    • Process functions
      • Straight-through furnace system
      • Separation furnace system
      • Combining furnace with downstream separation
      • Combining and separation furnace system
    • Defining the physical and chemical changes
    • Preliminary mass and energy balances
    • Reliability of available process knowledge
      • Existing processes
      • New processes and pilot plants
    • Effect of upstream and downstream processes
    • Fuel choice
      • Fuel chemical compatibility with the process
      • Heat transfer compatibility with the process
    • Potential for heat recovery and choice of equipment
      • Estimating the potential for heat recovery from hot product
      • Estimating the potential for heat recovery from hot flue gas
      • Estimating the potential for heat recovery from shell losses or cooling water
      • Economic considerations
    • Furnace sizing
      • Slab heating furnace design
      • Oil heating furnace design
      • Aggregate processing furnace
    • Burner selection
    • Detailed analysis and validation of the furnace design
    • Furnace instrumentation and controls

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