The European aluminum products
The range of aluminum products, its properties and its quality requirements are constantly expanding. Manufacturers of aluminum products want to be sure, they produce and deliver exactly the products, that customers want, and which meets their.
It's been two decades, since the European Union have been introduced European standards for aluminum products, which replaced the largely outdated national standards, including well-known standard DIN and BS. In these European standards have been taken into account as much as possible the increased capabilities of the aluminum industry and also increased market demand of aluminum products.
The list of European standards for aluminum products consists of more 120 items! One can doubt whether this very “European approach” – the introduction of common European standards – actually brought simplification and convenience to the standardization of products of the European aluminum industry.. Nonetheless, reputedly, this is true. European standards for aluminum products have a high degree of transparency and make it perfectly clear in the relationship between the manufacturer and the customer.
Each contract – reference to standards
often, that the customers of aluminum products are small companies, who are not familiar with the "aluminum" standards. They just fit in their orders the, what they want without any references to European standards. In this case, the supplier must include references to standards in the contract or in the written order confirmation. It gives both sides the necessary basis for negotiations in the case of, if the customer is not satisfied with the delivered product.
The cause of complaints and complaints with significant financial consequences are often confusion and misunderstandings, special, if the correspondence used for the supply of non-native language for the customer. Therefore, it is important to apply the common terminology as defined, which are given in European standards.
Market many aluminum products and semi-finished products is global and includes a global means of communication between stakeholders, for example, supplier and customer. they often speak different native languages, but in this case most of the time used for their "foreign" correspondence English.
The aluminum industry uses many technical terms, that can not be found in dictionaries. Some of them are collected in European or North American standards. However, often they are used for different things, that not infrequently leads to misunderstandings and errors. Therefore, even the most experienced translator will be at a loss when trying to adequately translate materials "Aluminum" contract, especially the technical requirements for the specific aluminum products.
This problem is partially solves the document, which gives all the terms and definitions, trade-related aluminum products. Это – GAG Guidance Document 001 “Terms and Definition”, abbreviated - GAG 001. He is the source of terms and definitions, which are used or will be used in Aluminum Standards.
The use of identical terms and definitions in the standards of different countries and even continents, It allows for more precise application of these standards at the order and delivery of aluminum products with a minimum of confusion.
The terms in this document are grouped by different product areas:
- sampling and testing,
- characteristics of products and
- various types of non-compliance of quality requirements, i.e, simply put, marriage.
All of these terms are included in one document, and Internet search engines can easily find it in each term separately.
European standards aluminum products - this is, primarily, standards for general-purpose products. There are also standards for special aluminum products, for example, packaging in the food industry or pressure vessels.
Aluminum products, general purpose generally has a sheet shape, plate, foil, tight / rods, tubes, profiles or wire. For each of these forms issued European Standards "general purpose" and each of them consists of several parts, eg:
- Sheets and plates: from EN 485-1 до AND 485-4.
- Rods / rod, pipes and profiles: from EN 754-1 до AND 754-8 (pulled) and from EN 755-1 до AND 755-9 (pressed).
- Foil: from EN 546-1 до AND 546-4.
- Drawn wire: from EN 1301-1 до AND 1301-3.
The structure of the standard for aluminum products
Part 1 Each standard contains technical control and delivery conditions, which indicate:
- what information should be included in the "order form", ie a document or set of documents, which the supplier and the customer agree upon when ordering a batch of products;
- what are the requirements for the product (including references to other parts of the standards);
- how the manufacturer should make and test the product;
- as the products must be shipped, and what information should be provided to the customer;
- as, in case of need, will be the resolution of disputes.
Part 2 Each standard defines the mechanical properties of these alloys and conditions, and the next part of the set tolerances on shape and dimensions, and in some cases - the requirements for additional properties.
customers, who need a small amount of standard products, buy them from wholesalers. Wholesalers order products directly from the manufacturer in accordance with relevant European standards. By proper control of technology and organization of production, as well as the required amount of product testing, The manufacturer builds confidence, that the properties of the products are in accordance with the requirements of the relevant standards. customers, that these standard products are needed in large quantities, buy them directly from the manufacturer.
Sometimes the demands of some customers to aluminum products are more stringent, than those, which are set out in the European standards. They may also be additional requirements., which tighten standards. In such cases, products are usually ordered in accordance with European standards., but include additional requirements in the contract or order. In most cases, such special requirements apply to a limited number of properties and tests.. In this case, a reference to a specific European standard means, that for all properties, test methods and delivery conditions, which are not specified in the special requirements of the contract or order, the requirements of this standard apply.
Special requirements for aluminum products
Special requirements for aluminum products usually apply to products of a special application.. Therefore, a special group of European standards has been created for these applications:
- for food aluminum,
- for pressure vessels,
- for railway cars,
- for marine shipbuilding,
- for electrical products,
- for packaging and
- for load-bearing building structures.
Special aluminum alloys
These standards recommend special alloys for their respective applications., as well as additional or more stringent mechanical requirements, dimensional tolerances and other properties.
In many cases, the standard for specialty products unifies additional requirements., which are necessary for this type of product. This reduces the cost of manufacturing and testing this product..
It is the decision and responsibility of the customer: which standard to order aluminum products for special applications - according to general purpose european standard (may be with additional requirements) or according to the European standard for special purposes.
Standards for specialty products are usually developed by large consumers and industry associations..
Examples of special purpose standards are:
- EN 15006 on aluminum cans for aerosols;
- EN 2070 for wrought aluminum alloys for the aerospace industry;
- EN 286-4 on aluminum pressure vessels.
European standard plus contract
for instance, the customer wants to order a sheet with tighter tolerances, than specified in the European standard. He may indicate these special requirements in his order and, Nonetheless, must refer to the European standard for aluminum sheets - EN 485-1. In this case, the requirements of this standard for dimensional tolerances will be replaced by more stringent requirements, which are indicated in the order, and other requirements remain unchanged.
However, probably, it will be difficult for the wholesaler to obtain such special products in small quantities. If this special product is ordered from the manufacturer, then he will produce a separate batch for these special requirements, which will mean higher production costs and, naturally, higher price.
Aluminum products according to specifications
For some aluminum products, for example, sheet for car bodies, there are only a few suppliers and customers. In such cases, specifications are often applied., agreed between manufacturer and customer, and European standards do not apply at all.
European standartisation in the field of aluminium
CEN/TC 132 – ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS
Standardization in the field of unwrought, wrought and cast products made from aluminium and aluminium alloys, particularly: – designations; – terms and definitions; – material specifications; – technical conditions of delivery; – dimensions and tolerances; – methods of testing specific to aluminium.
- CEN/TC 132/WG 1 – Liquid metal, unalloyed and alloyed ingots
- CEN/TC 132/WG 10 – Castings
- CEN/TC 132/WG 11 – Slugs for impact extrusion
- CEN/TC 132/WG 12 – Electro welded tubes
- CEN/TC 132/WG 14 – General support
- CEN/TC 132/WG 15 – Aluminium anodisation
- CEN/TC 132/WG 16 – Aluminium alloys for marine applications (shipbuilding, marine and offshore structure)
- CEN/TC 132/WG 17 – Chemical analysis
- CEN/TC 132/WG 18 – Terminology
- CEN/TC 132/WG 19 – Corrosion
- CEN/TC 132/WG 2 – Extrusion billets and rolling ingots
- CEN/TC 132/WG 20 – Scrap
- CEN/TC 132/WG 21 – Railways applications of aluminium and aluminium alloys
- CEN/TC 132/WG 22 – Revision of EN 1559-4:1999
- CEN/TC 132/WG 23 – Revision of EN 1676 and EN 1706
- CEN/TC 132/WG 3 – Forgings and wrought and cast forging stock
- CEN/TC 132/WG 4 – Wires and drawing stock
- CEN/TC 132/WG 5 – Extruded and drawn products
- CEN/TC 132/WG 6 – Aluminium foil and finstock
- CEN/TC 132/WG 7 – Sheets, strips and plates
- CEN/TC 132/WG 8 – Rolled products for cans, closures and lids
- CEN/TC 132/WG 9 – Aluminium and aluminium alloys cast and wrought products in contact with food