Extrusion of aluminum alloys in the automotive industry

При производстве легковых автомобилей применяют два вида деформируемых алюминиевых сплавов:

  • extrusion alloys - for profiles and
  • rolled alloys - for sheets.

The following summarizes the basic aluminum extrusion alloys, which are used in the automotive industry.

The chemical composition and the use of alloys cm. Aluminum in the car: extrusion alloys

mark 1050

aluminum Brand 1050 series of technical aluminum 1xxx. It has low strength properties, but a very high capacity for forming, that is, the ability to withstand large plastic deformation under pressure treatment - extrusion, hot and cold rolling, and punching and other such operations.

aluminum Brand 1050 contains no special alloying elements - are present therein as inevitable impurities with a minimum content of aluminum 99,50 %.

Номинальный химический состав: Al99,50.

Для прокатных изделий типичными состояниями материала являются:

  • нагартованное до различных степеней (Н1х);
  • нагартованное и частично отожженное до различных степеней остаточной нагартовки (Н2х);
  • отожженное (О).

Для прессованных изделий типичным состоянием материала является Н112: горячее прессование и правка растяжением.

aluminum Brand 1050 применяется как в прессованных (экструдированных) изделиях – профилях, bars and tubes, and in rolled products - sheets and foils.

Alloy 3003

Alloy 3003 for extrusion, hot and cold rolling, as well as drawing. It has strength properties from low to medium, and very good moldability metal forming methods. The main alloying element is manganese, which among other functions provides good control of recrystallization and grain size. Another alloying element is copper, which improves the strength properties.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-1,2Mn-0,12Cu.

For extrusion products typical state material is H112, i.e, hot pressing and stretching the minor edits.

For typical alloy rolled product states 3003 are:

  • нагартованное до различных степеней (Н1х);
  • нагартованное и частично отжженное с различной степенью остаточной нагартовки (Н2х);
  • отожженное (О);
  • после горячего прессования и незначительной правки растяжением (Н112).

alloy 6005A

Thermally hardenable extrusion alloy of series 6xxx middle-mechanical properties. Magnesium and silicon are principal alloying elements, manganese and chromium - special additives.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-0,7Si-0,6Mg-MnCr

The strengthening component is the intermetallic compound Mg2Si. At the nominal chemical composition of the alloy 6005A has a content of magnesium silicide, Mg2Si around 0,9 %, a 0,4 % silicon is in excess, ie non magnesium. Manganese and chromium suppress recrystallization to control the shape and grain size.

Типичным состоянием материала сплава 6005А является Т6:

  • heating profiles when 530 ºS;
  • закалка водой;
  • artificial aging at 175 ° C within 8 hours.

Другим популярным состоянием является Т4: естественное старение при 20 ° C within 4 days after the same heating and quenching, for the T6 condition.

Alloy 6008

Thermally hardenable extrusion alloy of series 6xxx middle-mechanical properties. The main alloying elements - magnesium and silicon without special additives.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-0,7Si-0,6Mg-Mn.

Типичным состоянием материала является Т5:

  • закалка с температуры прессования (около 520 ºС) и
  • artificial aging at 175 ° C within 8 hours.

Alloy 6014

Thermally hardenable alloy extrusion of the 6xxx series. The level of mechanical properties - low to medium. The main alloying elements - magnesium and silicon, special supplement – manganese.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-0,45Si-0,6Mg-Mn.

Типичным состоянием материала является Т6:

  • hardening temperature 530 oC and
  • artificial aging at 175 ° C within 8 hours.

Alloy 6060

Thermally hardenable alloy extrusion of the 6xxx series. The level of mechanical properties - Low. The main alloying elements - magnesium and silicon, No special additives.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-0,5Si-0,4Mg.

The reinforcing component heat treatment - the intermetallic compound Mg2Si. At the nominal chemical composition of the alloy 6060 It has a content of magnesium silicide, Mg2Si around 0,7 %, a 0,2 % silicon is in excess. All other elements are considered impurities.

Absence of additives sometimes creates problems with grain sizes during heating for quenching and tempering.

Типичным состоянием материала является Т5:

  • закалка от температуры прессования (около 520 ºС) и
  • artificial aging at 175 ° C within 8 hours.

Alloy 6061

Thermally hardenable alloy extrusion of the 6xxx series. The level of mechanical properties - high. The main alloying elements - magnesium and silicon, special additive - chrome. In the automotive industry it applies only in the form of extrusion products - extruded profiles.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-1,0Mg-0,6Si-0,30Cu-0,20Cr.

Hardening heat treatment components - the intermetallic compound Mg2If и AlCuMg, which are formed during aging. At the nominal chemical composition of the alloy 6061 It has a maximum content of magnesium silicide, Mg2Si around 1,3 %. chromium additives inhibit recrystallization and grain growth.

Типичным состоянием материала является Т6:

  • quenching with water of a temperature of about 535 oC and
  • artificial aging at 175 ° C within 8 hours.

Естественное старение (Т4) происходит при комнатной температуре в течение 8 day.

Alloy 6063

Thermally hardenable alloy extrusion of the 6xxx series. The level of mechanical properties - low to medium. The main alloying elements - magnesium and silicon, special additives - no.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-0,7Mg-0,4Si.

The reinforcing component heat treatment - the intermetallic compound Mg2Si. At nominal - stoichiometric – the chemical composition of the alloy 6061 It has a content of magnesium silicide, Mg2Si around 1,0 % without excessive silicon. The absence of additives sometimes creates problems with the grain.

Типичным состоянием материала является Т5:

  • закалка водой от температуры прессования (около 520 ºС) и
  • artificial aging at 175 ° C within 8 hours.

Alloy 6082

Thermally hardenable alloy extrusion of the 6xxx series. The level of mechanical properties - high. The main alloying elements - magnesium and silicon, special additive - manganese.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-1Si-0,9Mg-0,7Mn.

The reinforcing component heat treatment - the intermetallic compound Mg2Si. At the nominal chemical composition of the alloy 6082 It has a content of magnesium silicide, Mg2Si around 1,4 % c excess of silicon in an amount 0,5 %. Manganese helps control the shape and size of the grains during heat treatment.

Типичным состоянием материала является Т6:

  • quenching water temperature 540 oC and
  • artificial aging at 175 ° C within 8 hours.

Естественное старение (Т4) – at room temperature for 8 day.

Alloy 6106

Thermally hardenable alloy extrusion of the 6xxx series. The level of mechanical properties - low to medium. The main alloying elements - magnesium and silicon, special additive - manganese.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-0,45Si-0,6Mg-Mn.

Heat treatment - the same as for the 6005A alloy.

This alloy was developed relatively recently for the manufacture of complex shapes with small thickness. Moreover, alloy 6106 It possesses a good combination of mechanical properties, high surface quality and outstanding ability to plastic deformation.

Alloy 7003

Typical thermally hardenable extrusion alloy of the 7xxx series. The level of mechanical properties - medium. The main alloying elements - zinc and magnesium, special additive - zirconium.

Номинальный химический состав: Al-6Zn-0,8Mg-Zr.

The reinforcing component - intermetallic compound MgZn2. Zirconium is used to control the process of recrystallization.

Typical conditions are material T53 and T63. Состояние Т53 включает:

  • закалку от температуры прессования (около 450 ºС);
  • natural aging at a temperature no higher than 40 ° C within 3-4 суток;
  • двухступенчатое искусственное старение (первая ступень – 100 ° C within 8 hours and the second stage - 150 ° C within 15 hours).

To achieve the T63 condition profiles quenched with water after heating at 440 ° C, and then the natural and artificial aging of similar T53.

Источник: Aluminium@Cars. Design, Technology, Innovation; Edimet, 2005