Aluminum in the car: extrusion alloys

Aluminum extruded profiles and rolled aluminum - plates, sheets and foil - this is aluminum products, aluminum which is called "semi-finished".

aluminum semi-finished products

Aluminum semi-finished - it, so to speak, "Unfinished products", aluminum products, Sources from which the blanks for the manufacture of aluminum is completely finished products and parts. Алюминиевые полуфабрикаты получают методами прессования (экструзии) или прокатки. К ним относятся:

  • прессованные алюминиевые изделия: профили, tubes, rods and
  • прокатные алюминиевые изделия – алюминиевый прокат: листы, thick, conventional and thin, as well as foil.

From these semi-finished products, extruded and rolled, machining methods, or methods by pressure produced completely finished articles or car parts, for example, elements of the frame and body, seat, doors, bumpers.

Aluminum profiles in the car

Extruded profiles are produced on special machines, which is called the extrusion press by the heated aluminum extrusion billet through a slot in the matrix. This slot has a cross-sectional shape fabricated Profile. Profiles can be open or closed, solid and hollow, symmetrical and asymmetrical, with almost unlimited cross-sectional shape.

Единственными ограничениями для алюминиевых профилей являются:

  • The maximum cross-sectional dimension. This size is expressed as the minimum diameter of the circle, which can be described around an airfoil. This size can reach 700-800 mm and sometimes even more, however most aluminum extrusions having a minimum diameter of the circumscribed circle of not more than 300 mm;
  • The thickness of the walls and shelves, which typically can not be less than 1,0-1,2 mm;
  • Вес на единицу длины профиля – погонный вес (масса), который начинается с нескольких граммов на метр и может достигать несколько десятков килограммов на метр;
  • Profile Length, which, if desired, may reach several tens of meters.

Extruded aluminum profiles are used in the automotive industry is relatively recent, in comparison with the rolled aluminum, primarily, aluminum sheet, and aluminum alloy products - aluminum castings. Due to the almost unlimited possibilities of aluminum profiles to take any shape and the wide range of extrusion of aluminum alloys, their use aluminum structures significantly widens, especially in the frame of the body elements.

Extrusion aluminum alloys

Большинство автомобильных экструзионных алюминиевых сплавов принадлежат к серии 6ххх (Al-Mg-Si). The base alloys are alloys 6060, 6061 and 6005A, on which manufacturers developed their variants to optimize the desired properties of aluminum components. Остальные автомобильные экструзионные сплавы принадлежат к сериям 1ххх (Al) и 3ххх (Al-Mn).

The main extruded aluminum alloys, которые применяют в автомобилестроении и родственных областях являются (обозначение сплава – номинальный химический состав – применение):

  • 1050 – Al99,5 – трубы теплообменников;
  • 3003 – Al-1,2Mn-0,12Cu – радиаторы кондиционеров воздуха;
  • 6005А – Al-0,7Si-0,6Mg-MnCr – рамные элементы кузова, seat, подвески;
  • 6008 – Al-0,7Si-0,6Mg-Mn – рамные элементы кузова;
  • 6014 – Al-0,45-0,6Mg-Mn – рамные элементы кузова;
  • 6060 – Al-0,5Mg-0,4S – детали, требующие большой пластической деформации при их изготовлении;
  • 6061 – Al-1,0Mg-0,6Si-0,30Cu-0,20Cr – направляющие сидений, bumpers, элементы несущей рамы;
  • 6063 – Al-0,7Mg-0,4Si – рамные элементы кузова и элементы несущей рамы, конструкции для поглощения энергии удара при аварии;
  • 6082 – Al-1Si-0,9Mg-0,7Mn – боковые балки для поглощения энергии при аварии; дверные рамы, рамные элементы кузова и элементы несущей рамы;
  • 6106 – Al-0,45Si-0,6Mg-Mn – рамные элементы кузова и элементы для поглощения энергии удара при аварии;
  • 7003 – Al-6Zn-0,8Mg-Zr – бамперы.

See. подробнее о каждом сплаве здесь:
Extruded aluminum alloys in the car

Chemical composition of the alloys extrusion

Table - Chemical composition of automobile aluminum alloy extrusionekstrusionnye-alyuminievye-splavy

Most of automotive aluminum extrusion alloys are conventional alloys, which are used in other industries. However, some of them, such as 6008, 6014, 6106, It has been developed more recently specifically for the automotive industry and their characteristics are optimized for use in the car.

Источник: Aluminium@Cars. Design, Technology, Innovation; Edimet, 2005