Effects of hydrogen in aluminium and its alloys / D.J.. D.J.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRIEF CONTENTS

1 OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

2 OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • Crystal Structure
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • Alloy Systems
    • Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment
      • Commercial Pure Aluminium Grades (AA 1100 Alloy Series)
      • Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment 3003
      • Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys (AA 5000 Series)
      • Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment 3004
    • Heat Treatable (Ageing) Alloys
      • Aluminium-Copper-Magnesium Alloys (e.g. AA 2024)
      • Aluminium-Zinc-Magnesium Alloys (e.g. AA 7075)
      • Aluminium-Magnesium-Silicon Alloys (e.g. AA 6061)
      • Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment
    • Polarization Curves and Pitting Potential of AXJ Alloy
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

3 Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment

  • Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment
    • Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment
    • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
    • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • The Direct Chill CDC) Semicontinuous Process
        • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
        • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
        • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
        • Hot Rolling
        • Cold Rolling
        • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
        • Extrusion
        • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
        • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process
      • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

4 Extraction of Aluminium by the Hall-Herault Process

  • DILUTE SOLUTIONS OF HYDROGEN IN ALUMINIUM
    • Thermodynamics of Dissolution
      • Selection of Standard States
      • Pressure-Dependence of Solubility and Sievert’s Isotherm
      • Temperature-Dependence of Solubility and the Van’t Hoff Isobar
    • Some Fundamental Aspects of Hydrogen Solutions
      • Electronic Approach to the Enthalpy of Solution
      • Statistical Approach to Solubility
      • Crystallographic Aspects of Hydrogen Solutions
    • SPONTANEOUS BREAKDOWN OF SUPERSATURATED SOLUTIONS
      • Nucleation and Growth of Hydrogen-Filled Micropores
      • Pore Stability Diagram
    • Pore Stability Diagram
      • Pore Stability Diagram
        • Microporosity
        • Pore Stability Diagram
      • Pore Stability Diagram
      • Pore Stability Diagram
        • Pore Stability Diagram
        • Pore Stability Diagram
      • Pore Stability Diagram
        • Pore Stability Diagram
        • Pore Stability Diagram
      • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

5 Pore Stability Diagram

  • Pore Stability Diagram
    • Pore Stability Diagram
    • Pore Stability Diagram
  • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
    • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
    • Equipment
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
    • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
    • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
    • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
    • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
        • Operation
        • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
        • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
        • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
      • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
      • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
      • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
      • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

6 Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments

  • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
    • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments’ Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
      • Equipment
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
      • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments’ Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
    • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments- Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
      • Equipment
      • THE VACUUM EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE
    • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
    • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
  • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
    • Example of Telegas Application in Industrial Experiments
    • Practical System Based on Hydrogen Content
    • Relation of Hydrogen Content to Molality and Mole Fraction
  • CRITICAL ASSESSMENTS OF PUBLISHED VALUES FOR SOLUBILITIES
    • Pure Aluminium
      • Pure Liquid Aluminium
      • Pure Solid Aluminium
      • Comparison of Solubilities in Liquid and Solid Pure Aluminium
    • Aluminium-Copper and Aluminium-Silicon Alloys
      • Liquid Aluminium Copper Alloys
      • Liquid Aluminium-Silicon Alloys
    • Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Liquid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Nature of Hydrogen Solutions in Liquid Aluminium Alloys Containing Lithium
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

7 Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys

  • 1 Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
    • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
    • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
      • Solid Aluminium-Lithium Alloys
    • DETERMINATION OF DIFFUSIVITY COEFFICIENTS
      • Approach
      • Procedures for the Solid Metal
      • Evaluation of Diffusion Coefficients
    • DIFFUSIVITY IN ALUMINIUM
      • True Diffusivity in Solid Pure Aluminium
      • Diffusivity in Manufactured Products
      • Diffusion with Enhanced Trapping
      • Diffusivity of Hydrogen in Pure Liquid Aluminium
    • DIFFUSIVITY IN SOLID ALUMINIUM LITHIUM ALLOYS
      • Measured Values
      • Mathematical Analysis
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

8 ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN IN ALUMINIUM AND ITS ALLOYS

  • INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN SOURCES
  • THE CAPACITY OF THE METAL TO ACCEPT HYDROGEN
  • HYDROGEN ABSORPTION BY LIQUID METAL
    • Practical Considerations
      • Furnace Atmospheres
      • Charge Materials
    • Reaction Kinetics
      • Oxygen Activity Gradients in Oxidation Products on Aluminium
      • Conditions for Reduction of Water Vapour to Hydrogen
      • Relevant Phases in the Alumina- Water System
      • Orthorhombic Titanium Aluminides:
      • Correlation of Phase Relationships with Hydrogen Absorption
  • ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN IN SOLID METAL FROM THE ATMOSPHERE
    • Pure Aluminium
    • Aluminium- Contents:
      • Theoretical Treatment of Selective Oxidation
      • Hydrogen Absorption in Aluminium Magnesium Alloys from Clean Humid Air
      • Hydrogen Absorption from Air Polluted with Sulphur Dioxide
      • The Influence of Pore Nuclei
      • Inhibition by Potassium Borofluoride
    • Aluminium-lithium Alloys
      • Theoretical Treatment of Selective Oxidation
      • Hydrogen Absorption in Aluminium Lithium Alloys from Clean Humid Air
      • Lithium Hydride as a Sink for Absorbed Hydrogen
      • The Influence of Sulphur Pollution in the Atmosphere
  • HYDROGEN ABSORBED FROM ROLLED SURFACES
    • Characteristics of Hot-Rolled Surfaces
    • Profile of the Surface Hydrogen Source
    • Hydrogen Absorption in Annealing During Manufacture
      • Simulated Annealing of Hot Rolled Aluminium
      • Mathematical Model of Hydrogen Absorption
      • Effect of Cold Rolling
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

9 POROSITY AND RELATED ARTIFACTS IN MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS

  • EVALUATION OF POROSITY
  • INTERDENDRITIC POROSITY
    • Theory of Formation
    • Distribution in Semicontinuously Cast Ingots
    • Persistence Through Thermal and Mechanical Processing
    • Porosity in Near Net Shape Castings
  • SECONDARY POROSITY
    • Nucleation of Micropores
      • Disproportionation of Hydrogen Solutions
      • Stability of Micropores
    • Secondary Pore Systems in 99.2% Aluminium (AA 1100)
      • Effects of Thermal and Mechanical Treatments
      • Correlation with Hydrogen Content
    • Secondary Pore Systems in Very Pure (99.99%) Aluminium
      • Effect of Homogenising Semicontinuously Cast Ingots
      • Wrought Forms
    • Preferred Pore Sites
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

10 CONTROL OF HYDROGEN AND ITS EFFECTS IN MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS

  • DEFECTSASSOCIATEDWITHHYDROGEN
    • Wrought Products
      • Sheet and Extrusions
      • Foil
      • Thick Plate and Forgings
    • Near Net Shape Castings
    • Alloys Containing Lithium
  • CONTROL AND REMOVAL OF HYDROGEN FROM THE LIQUID METAL
    • Transport of Hydrogen Across the Liquid Metal Surface
    • Degassing by Purging
      • Theoretical Basis
      • Selection of Purge Gases
      • Degassing In Furnaces
      • In-line Degassing
      • Economical Use of Degassing Procedures
      • Multipurpose Liquid Metal Treatment Systems
      • The Special Case of Alloys Containing Lithium
    • CONTROLOF HYDROGEN AND ITS EFFECTS IN THE SOLID METAL
      • The State of Occluded Hydrogen in the Solid Metal
        • Solution
        • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
        • Secondary Porosity and Unstable Solutions
        • Hydrides
      • Absorption of Hydrogen from Atmospheric Humidity
        • Pure Aluminium
        • Aluminium Alloys Containing Magnesium
        • Alloys Used without Heat-Treatment
      • Absorption of Hydrogen from Surfaces of Mill Products
      • Redistribution and Expansion of Secondary Porosity
      • Mechanically-Generated Defects
      • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN
    • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

Applications by Alloy Class 1. CALIBRATION OF VACUUM EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT

Applications by Alloy Class 2. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF MAGNESIUM AND LITHIUM IN ALLOYS

  • STANDARD GIBBS FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION
  • FORMATION OF OXIDES ON ALUMINIUM-MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
    – Equilibrium Oxygen Activities
    – Equilibrium Constants
    – Example of Calculations
  • FORMATION OF OXIDES ON ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM ALLOYS
  • HYDRATION OF MAGNESIUM AND LITHIUM OXIDES
  • OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF OCCLUDED HYDROGEN

SUBJECT INDEX