Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys BooksAluminium reference books

Designing with Aluminum Alloys

Gain an understanding of fundamentals of designing with aluminum alloys like homogenization, solution treatment, aging treatment, precipitation, hardening, textures, toughness, fatigue, and corrosion.

In Handbook of Mechanical Alloy Design
edited by George E. Totten, Lin Xie, Kiyoshi Funatani


Part One – Design Principles

Basic Principles

Risk-Based Metallurgical Design

Part Two – Alloy Design

Designing with Carbon-, Low-, and Medium-Alloy Steels

Designing with Tool Steel

Designing with High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels

Designing with Microalloyed and Interstitial-Free Steels

Designing with Stainless Steel

Cast Iron Design: Processes, Alloys, and Properties

Designing with Aluminum Alloys


  • Alloy Designations
    • Wrought Alloys
    • Polarization Curves and Pitting Potential of AXJ Alloy


  • Homogenization
  • Solution Treatment
  • Aging Treatment
    • In-situ Small Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Precipitation Kinetics During Thermomechanical Treatments in a 7xxx Aluminium Alloy
    • Precipitate-Free Zones at Grain Boundaries


  • Hardening (Strengthening) Mechanisms
    • Precipitation and Dispersion Hardening
    • Work Hardening
    • Textures
  • Toughness
  • Fatigue
  • Corrosion


  • Temper Designations
  • Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys
    • Pure Aluminum (1XXX Series)
    • Al–Mn and Al–Mn–Mg Alloys (3XXX Series)
    • Al–Mg Alloys (5XXX Series)
    • Miscellaneous Alloys
  • Heat-Treatable Alloys
    • Al–Cu Alloys (2XXX Series)
    • Al–Cu–Mg Alloys (2XXX Series)
    • Al–Mg–Si Alloys (6XXX Series)
    • Al–Zn–Mg(–Cu) Alloys (7XXX Series)
    • Al–Li Alloys
  • Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloys


  • Temper Designations
  • Al–SI Alloys
  • Al–Cu Alloys
  • Al–Mg Alloys
  • Al–Zn–Mg Alloys

Designing with Magnesium: Alloys, Properties, and Casting Processes

Designing with Titanium Alloys

Designing with Ni-Base Alloys

Designing with Copper Alloys

Designing with Powder Metallurgy Alloys

Designing with Metal-Matrix Composites


Some interesting data from “Designing with Aluminum Alloys”

Table 1 – Invariant Reactions and Maximum Solubilities in Binary Aluminum Alloys

Notes: Pure aluminum has very low strength and cannot be used for structural applications. When alloyed with other elements, however, it gains strength by various strengthening mechanisms. Aluminum can be alloyed with most metallic elements, but only some have enough solid solubility to be used as major alloying elements. Of more importance are copper, magnesium, silicon, and zinc (Table 1). However, a considerable number of other elements have pronounced effect on improving the properties of aluminum alloys. These include chromium, manganese, and zirconium, which are used primarily to control grain structure. Maximum solid solubility in aluminum alloys usually occurs at eutectic, peritectic, or monotectic temperature. Solid solubility decreases with decreasing temperature. Such change of solid solubility with temperature is the basis of age hardening.

Table 4 – Precipitation Sequences in Selected Aluminum Alloys

Notes: The decomposition process of the supersaturated solid solution (SSSS) is very complex and the resulting precipitation sequence varies depending on the respective alloy systems. Probable precipitation sequences in typical aluminum alloys are shown in Table 4. In general, Guinier–Preston (GP) zones and one or more metastable transition phases may be formed prior to the formation of equilibrium phase. GP zones are ordered, solute-rich clusters of atoms which are homogeneously nucleated in the matrix. They are about one or two atomic layers thick and fully coherent with the matrix.