For any production of extruded aluminum profiles constitute the technological waste 20-25 % from the parent metal, which goes to the press in the form of aluminum ingots. Therefore, almost all manufacturers of extruded aluminum profiles ("aluminum extruders") have their own foundry for remelting their own technological waste., and a commercially available aluminum scrap and aluminum ingots, into new bars, poles.
In our experience over the past 20 s the best introduction to the production of aluminum ingots for pressing a guide Ashford Engineering Services UK firm 1997 Year of release. In a subsequent series of articles we will present the main points of this remarkable textbook based on our own practical experience.
Direct Chill Casting
These ingots usually have a circular section of different diameter, inch which is usually a multiple of the quantity, for example, 6, 7 and 8 inch or 152, 178 and 203 mm. These bars are more commonly referred to as logs..
The process of casting aluminum ingots for pressing is called in English D.C. casting или direct cooling casting, that is literally: "direct chill casting". This is because, that the produced ingots - pillars - are directly (directly) cooled by jets of water around the entire perimeter. Primary cooling is carried on the wall of the mold, and the secondary - on the ingot surface, that comes out of the mold.
shop equipment for casting ingots
A typical workshop for the production of aluminum ingots-pillars has the following set of equipment (picture):
- Loader charge in the melting furnace
- Melting and holding furnace (two separate or one combined)
- Chute for feeding the melt to the casting machine
- filtering node
- degassing node
- Vertical Casting Machine
- System preparation and supply of the cooling water
- Crane for extracting ingots-pillars
- Laydown pillars
- Loader homogenizing furnace
- homogenizing furnace
- Installation for cooling pillars
- Saw cutting of pillars
Production performance of the equipment depends on the projected annual production of ingots, the available production space, the financial capacity of the equipment and Graphics.
To ensure a high quality ingot-pillars, in particular, their good compressibility on the press, it is important to take into account some important factors.
Control of the chemical composition of the aluminum alloy
For popular extruded aluminum alloys 6060 and 6063 (AD31) magnesium and silicon content, and the ratio of their content, have the greatest influence on their moldability - ease of pressing, than any other factor.
To control the chemical composition of an alloy generally used optical emission spectrometer. Metal samples are taken from the smelting furnace:
- to razlivki, to make an adjustment of the chemical composition and, if necessary,
- again after making alloying additions and mixing, To make sure, that the adjustment has been performed correctly.
Metallurgy of aluminum alloys is very complex and therefore small amounts of some undesirable elements, such as iron and sodium, may have a disproportionate impact. Therefore, the spectrometer must have a sufficiently wide range of elements to be determined, to allow to carry out a detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the produced aluminum alloy.
Filtration of molten aluminum
Oxide inclusions are removed from the melt through a ceramic filter, which is placed downstream of the melt. Oxide inclusions fall into the melt from the furnace lining, of lead gutters, as well as the contaminated charge. The charge - it is all the raw materials, which are loaded into the melting furnace: technological scrap, purchase scrap, primary ingots, secondary in pigs, ligature alloys. Oxides can cause excessive wear and damage to the extrusion dies during pressing time.
To remove coarse dirt, for example, oblomkov linings, frequently used filters made of special refractory grid, usually in multiple layers. Ceramic filters are quite expensive and, Moreover, require constant heating. Therefore, small enterprises often costing only a fiberglass filter, which is installed directly at the outlet of the melting (holding) furnace.
The hydrogen content in the aluminum melt
Excessive hydrogen content can be controlled by degassing the melt in the furnace itself or in a separate degasser, which is installed in the line casting. A large hydrogen content can cause porosity ingots, blistering on the profiles and further profiles material embrittlement.
The level of hydrogen content is measured by the number of cubic centimeters of hydrogen per 100 g of metal. In the production of aluminum profiles usually considered limiting content 0,20 look3 hydrogen 100 g of metal.
The approximate level of hydrogen content can be measured at the factory using simple equipment. Accurate measurements require sophisticated equipment, and they are usually performed in specialized laboratories.
Aluminum Melt Temperature Control
Poor control of temperature of molten aluminum, and particularly a too high temperature in the casting of ingots results in problems with the quality of metal ingots and surface quality. With increasing aluminum melt temperature increases the solubility of hydrogen in it.
Tight control of the melt temperature increases the probability of successful start casting pillars in the casting machine and ensures a successful casting of pillars.
Methods of casting ingots
Apply various technologies casting pillars. Casting technology determines the casting table design, which are arranged crystallizers.
A modern and convenient technology is the Hot Top casting method.. This method is used as a constant supply of lubricant to the molds, and with a single grease mold before casting. On the very best machines, permanent lubrication is supplied mixed with air or argon (for example, Air Slip technology).
Even in the 1990s, it was widely used technology of casting pillars with the float control system supplying a melt crystallizers. Although this technology, basically, It provides good casting results, it is almost universally supplanted by casting systems with heat nadsadkami.
An advantage of casting systems Hot Top, especially with a constant supply of lubricant, It is, that posts, which are produced by this method, have a reduced thickness so-called inversion of the surface layer. This layer comprises a high content of alloying elements and impurities, which can produce surface defects profiles. This may be of particular importance, for example, when pressing the profiles for subsequent anodizing.
homogenization of ingots
Homogenization of ingots - holding at a given temperature (above 500 ºС) for several hours followed by rapid cooling. Proper homogenization ingots increases its compressibility and thermal efficiency of subsequent processing profiles.
Cooling of bars after homogenization
Increased rate and uniformity of cooling after heating pillars cages pillars in homogenization furnace are very important. With slow and non-uniform cooling cages pillars may be formed in the metal structure unfavorable.
experience shows, that own foundry plant for extrusion of aluminum profiles capable of producing ingots of high-quality poles. Despite, that the primary feedstock such plants are own technological waste aluminum and recycled aluminum, they are capable of producing ingots, which are not inferior quality ingots largest producers of primary aluminum ingots. The key to this is a well-chosen equipment, as well as a motivated and qualified staff.
A full cycle of production of ingots, which determines the performance of the entire foundry, depends on three main factors:
- the speed of loading the charge into the melting furnace;
- the rate of metal melting in the smelting furnace;
- speed injection molding machine.
Download speed charge
load charge – aluminum waste, scrap, çuşek – It produces a number of different methods. On smaller plants typically use a combination of manual and mechanical loading.
metal melting rate
The rate of metal melting in the melting furnace depends on the power of the burner (s) and the furnace hearth area. Dimensions define the hearth area value, through which heat exchange occurs between the combustion products of burners, as well as the roof of the furnace with the charge loaded into the furnace (see. also Aluminum melting).
Speed casting pillars
Speed casting pillars depends on the diameter. Popular posts with aluminum alloys 6000 diameter 152 mm have a casting speed of about 130 mm per minute. For columns with a typical length 6000 mm length of the casting is about 50 minutes. 15-20 minutes may be needed, to remove the cast from the casting pit columns. The duration of the preparation of the casting table, depending on its design can take from 10 minutes to 1 o'clock.
one machine – two ovens
clear, that the performance determinant production cycle time is poles, during which the metal passes from the loading to the melting furnace and before entering the casting machine. This time depending on the type and capacity of the smelting furnace and is not less than 3-4 hours, and then all 6, and so it is always better, than one time pouring columns. To smooth this problem is often one of the casting machine installed two melting furnaces, and, may be, a holding furnace, which is also called the holding furnace.
Initial investment and operating costs
The choice of equipment with minimal operating costs generally require higher initial investments. On the other hand, equipment with a very low initial investment often entails “punishment” in the form of higher production costs for energy and labor.
Source: D.C. Casting remelt shop handbook, Ashford Engineerig Services, Great Britain, 1997