From 20 by 24 June 2017 at the Congress Center of the Italian city of Verona PalaExpo jointly held the 10th Congress of Aluminum 2000 and the 6th Conference on aluminum extrusion Benchmark + 2017. These two events were so intertwined with each other, that it was impossible to understand, where else Congress, but where is the Conference. All four business days of the Congress and the Conference were filled with reports, Presentation and discussion, as well as a master class for anodizing and a visit to the neighboring METEF specialized exhibition of aluminum.
Science and Technology of aluminum
The scientific and technical part of the Congress and Conference was held in parallel in four conference rooms and covered the following topics:
- aluminum products markets, development strategy, logistics
- Anodizing of aluminum and staining
- aluminum extrusion and "benchmark" of computer programs
- The use of extruded aluminum
- The ingots for extrusion of aluminum
- Matrix and other tools for the extrusion of aluminum
- Innovative technologies in aluminum extrusion
- The microstructure of an extruded aluminum
- for the production of extruded aluminum plant
- Optimization of the aluminum extrusion process
- aluminum forging
- Casting and molding cast aluminum
- Aluminum profiles for absorbing impact energy
- Production and processing of the aluminum sheet for the automotive industry
- Processing the aluminum surface
- Cleaning aluminum enterprises drains
- welding of aluminum
Benchmark - competition of computer programs
One of the most interesting events of the Congress and the Conference was to present the results of the "benchmark" - "blind" testing the best software for simulation of extrusion process of aluminum and comparing the results of their calculations with the results of industrial experiment. The English word benchmark includes the concept of "testing", "Comparison with the standard" and has no direct counterpart in the Russian language. Therefore, for convenience, and we will call it "benchmark".
Such testing of computer programs for the simulation of aluminum extrusion - benchmarks - have been held several times. Their goal - to evaluate the possibilities of computer programs based on the finite element method in modeling real-world industrial aluminum extrusion experiments, and encourage them to develop and improve.
Pressing tools and profiles
We simulated the extrusion of an aluminum alloy 6005A on a porthole matrix with two mirrored C-shaped holes for two hollow profiles (figure 1).
Figure 1 - The main dimensions of profiles A and B in a cold state [1, 2]
The main task of the Benchmark-2017 was to study the temperature change of the die and other pressing tool during the extrusion (pressing) of complex hollow profiles..
The set of pressing tools consisted of seven parts (figure 2) :
- splitter / mandrel (1),
- matrix (2),
- lining (3),
- matrix ring (4),
- bolster (5),
- bolster ring (6) and
- subbolster (7).
Figure 2 - All "assembled" for computer modeling:
aluminum billet, Profiles A and B, matrix ring splitter / mandrel, matrix and lining (1, 2, 3),
bolster ring with bolster (5, 6) and subbolster (7) 
To measure the temperature of the pressing tool applied 7 thermocouples, two of which were installed near the working belts of the matrix of both profiles (profile A and profile B), and the rest 4 - in various places of the matrix ring (figure 3).
Figure 3 - Arrangement of thermocouples in the matrix and matrix ring 
Moreover, I worked noncontact thermometer at the outlet of the matrix. He was sent to the pattern A at a distance 630 mm from the outer end subbolstera.
- Press: industrial (SAPA), 30 MN (3000 tons);
- Container inner diameter: 210 mm;
- Container length: 1055 mm;
- Workpiece diameter: 203 mm;
- Workpiece length: 810 mm;
- Stamp speed: 9,86 mm / s;
- Working stroke of the ram: 792 mm (810 mm of workpiece length minus 18 mm of the length of the press residue);
- Puller pulling force (two profiles at the same time): 110 kg (1100 N);
- first 4 blank - with 1 by 4: to stabilize the temperature of the pressing tool;
- 4 blank - with 5 by 8: industrial experiments with air-cooled profiles (1 ºС / s);
- 4 blank - with 9 by 12: industrial experiments with cooling profiles with water (100 ºС / s);
- Press washer temperature: 350 ºS;
- Container temperature: 410 ºS;
- Workpiece temperature: 465 ° C front end, 360 ºС rear end (difference 105 ºС along the length of the workpiece);
- Matrix temperature: in the oven - 480 oC, cooling to 451-470 ° C during loading in the press.
- Aluminum alloy: 6005A-O;
- Matrix and other pressing tool material: AISI H-11 steel, 45-47 HRC.
Presentation of results
The results of extrusion modeling of all participants in the 2017 benchmark were presented in the following form:
- Rated pressing force
- Both temperature profiles at the exit of the matrix
- velocity profiles output from the matrix
- The temperature of the matrix in predetermined points of the seven
- Deviations languages matrix in the direction of extrusion
- Location of longitudinal welds in the profiles
- The grain size of the microstructure of profiles with air cooling
- The grain size of the microstructure with a water-cooling profiles
- The length of the traces of "old" blank from a place to stop the press when changing the workpiece
- The curvature profiles with respect to the nominal shape.
Results industrial experiment
Some interesting results from an industrial experiment:
- Gradient heating of the workpiece ensures isothermal pressing of profiles: constant speed 24 m / min at the output of the matrix and a constant temperature of about 580 ºS (drawings 4 and 5)
- The temperature at the running web matrix is constant and is about 575 ºС (figure 6)
- The temperature of the matrix near the matrix ring is about 360-380 ºС (figure 6)
Figure 6 - The temperature of the matrix near the belts (T1 and T2) and
near the matrix ring (T3-T6)
- Maximum deviation languages matrix during extrusion is about 0,5 mm (based on simulation results).
The benchmark 2017 attended 6 computer programs of different companies from different countries.
See. more Program of the Congress and the Conference + Benchmark 2017 (Room Verdi, 20-21 June 2017).
It was nice to find, that one of the participants in this benchmark is a computer program QFORM VX Company QuantorForm Ltd, headquartered in Moscow (Russia) and Oxford (UK). QuantorForm Ltd is one of the world leaders in the design and implementation of computer simulation of metal processing pressure.
Results of the "blind" the simulation of six participants in this contest, industrial as well as results of the experiment, It was presented at a general overview of all the participants of the Congress and the Conference of. Moreover, All participants of the benchmark will report on the results of their calculations.
Without going into details, note, that the results of the calculations are very similar to the results of industrial experiment.
A feature of this benchmark, as well as all previous, was that, that due to the complexity of the problem to be solved, He was not considered an official competition, tournament or championship companies-software developers. in front of, This event is a unique opportunity - a friendly and benevolent – clarify some points in the practice of the aluminum extrusion modeling for each participant. Therefore, the winner of this "race" is not officially declared.
- ICEB2017-Benchmark Settings – Donati L., A. Prawns, B. Reggiani, L. Tomesani - University of Bologna - 10thAluminium Two Thousand World Congress – 6th ICEB International Conference, 2017.
- BENCHMARK EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS – Donati L., A. Prawns, B. Reggiani, L. Tomesani University of Bologna10th Aluminium Two Thousand World Congress – 6th ICEB International Conference, 2017.