Sheet aluminum is the base material in a modern aircraft. Usually sheets from aluminum alloys apply for the manufacture of an aircraft fuselage, wherein both the inner frame, and for the outer shell. Individual parts are connected to each other by rivets and other types of fasteners.
Aluminum sheet is widely used in many types of aircraft - from single-engine aircraft to airplanes. Листовой алюминий получают путем раскатывания металла в плоские листы различной толщины от тонкого листа до толстого листа (плит). In aircraft use of thick aluminum sheets 3,3 to 0,25 mm (from 8 to 30 gauges, как говорят американцы).
Below are excerpts from the US leadership for civil aircraft maintenance technicians, where, along with other materials, basic aluminum alloys take place.
Aluminum and aluminum alloys
Sheets made of different aluminum alloys - is, what is most often encountered in the repair of aircraft. It is known, that aluminum in its pure form - it's easy, brilliant, corrosion-resistant, plastic. However, the level of pure aluminum is quite low strength.
Если алюминий получает небольшие добавки (доли и единицы процента) таких элементов, as copper, manganese and magnesium, the obtained aluminum alloys, which are used in aircraft.
Aluminum alloys such as lungs, as well as pure aluminum, but it is much stronger. They do not have the corrosion resistance like pure aluminum and usually require additional corrosion protection. One method of corrosion protection of aluminum alloys is plating the surface with a thin layer of aluminum. This layer was prepared by co-rolling aluminum and aluminum alloy. It protects the main aluminum alloy corrosion.
In the construction and repair of aircraft use the following basic grade aluminum and aluminum alloys.
Sheets of aluminum brand 1100 apply in cases, when the main factor is the strength not, and weight saving, and high resistance to corrosion. Sheets of this brand of aluminum used for the manufacture and repair of fuel tanks, fairings and oil tanks. Aluminum 1100 It is also used to repair the wing tips. Very good weldable.
Aluminium alloy 3003
This alloy is similar in application to aluminum 1100. It contains from 1,0 to 1,5 % manganese and therefore stronger and firmer, than aluminum 1100.
Aluminium alloy 2014
forgings, sheets and profiles of alloy 2014 used for manufacturing parts, which are subject to high loads, such as a wheel and the main bearing structures. This alloy is often used there, where high strength and hardness, and also to work at elevated temperatures.
Aluminium alloy 2017
This alloy is used for production of rivets. At the present time it is of limited use.
Aluminium alloy 2024
Alloy Sheets 2024 - plating with pure aluminum or without - used to manufacture aircraft frame members, rivets, fasteners and many other parts. Moreover, This alloy is used for thermally hardened parts, shell fuselage and extrusions.
Aluminium alloy 2025
This alloy is used for the manufacture of propeller blades.
Aluminium alloy 2219
Aluminum alloy sheet 2219 used for the manufacture and repair of fuel tanks, shell fuselage and an aircraft carrier structural elements. This alloy has a high fracture toughness and good welded. Alloy 2219 also has high resistance to stress corrosion.
Aluminium alloy 5052
Alloy 5052 used there, where good metal ductility is required, High resistance to corrosion, high fatigue strength, good weldability and medium static strength. This alloy is used for the fabrication of fuel, hydraulic and oil pipelines.
Aluminium alloy 5056
Alloy 5056 used for manufacturing the rivets and cable sheaths, as well as in those cases,, when the aluminum comes into contact with magnesium alloys. Alloy 5056 usually it is resistant to most forms of corrosion.
Casting aluminum alloys
Casting aluminum alloys are used for the manufacture of cylinder blocks, crankcases, fuel pumps and gear wheels.
Hardening aluminum alloys
Various aluminum alloys, including 3003, 5052 and 1100, hardened only by cold plastic deformation, instead of heat treatment.
other alloys, such as 2017 and 2024, hardening by thermal treatment, cold deformation, or a combination of both. Most foundry alloys are also hardened by heat treatment.
Aluminium alloy 6061
Alloy 6061 usually well welded by all industrial processes and welding methods. It also has a sufficiently high viscosity at cryogenic temperatures. Alloy 6061 fairly well pressed and generally used for production of hydraulic and pneumatic piping.
Aluminium alloy 7075
This alloy has a higher strength, than an alloy 2024, but lower fracture toughness. Usually it is applied, where high tensile strength, and the fatigue strength is not critical. In the state T6 alloy 7075 do not use in environments with high corrosivity. Однако в состоянии Т7351 (вариант перестаренного состояния) сплав 7075 It has a higher resistance to stress corrosion and fracture toughness, than in the T6 condition. Состояние Т76 (вариант перестаренного состояния) часто применяют для повышения стойкости сплава 7075 subsurface corrosion.
A source: https://www.faa.gov