Алюминиевый лом: в строительстве, electrical industry and packaging

Sources of aluminum scrap

Основными источниками промышленности по переработке алюминиевого лома в развитых промышленных странах являются:

  • строительство;
  • транспорт;
  • бытовые и спортивные товары;
  • электротехническая промышленность;
  • food packaging.

Aluminum scrap in construction

Aluminum properties, which make it a valuable material in construction, are:

  • low density;
  • высокая коррозионная стойкость;
  • возможность получать оптимальную форму профилей путем прессования (экструзии).

Примерами применения алюминия благодаря этим трем его преимуществам являются:

  • мобильные военные мосты;
  • рамы окон;
  • ограждения и перила;
  • судовые трапы;
  • теплицы и оранжереи;
  • облицовка фасадов зданий;
  • ограждающие фасадные конструкции;
  • флагштоки;
  • передвижные и мостовые краны;
  • лестницы;
  • автоматические двери;
  • опоры дорожных знаков;
  • electrical supports.

Most alloys, which he is used in construction, are deformable alloys, in particular, alloys of 5xxx and 6xxx series. Наиболее часто здесь применяют такие алюминиевые сплавы как:

  • 3103, 3105,
  • 5005, 5083, 5085, 5754,
  • 6005, 6060, 6061, 6063 and 6082.

Most aluminum products in this segment have begun to be used recently., and their service life is quite long - usually years 20, and often 50 years. Поэтому доля старого алюминиевого лома из строительной отрасли постепенно возрастает: от нуля в конце 1990-х годов до 10-15 % in the 2010s.

Impurities of construction scrap

Sources of contaminants and potential pollutants, contained in aluminum construction scrap, are:

  • ceramic materials, turn on the brick, бетон и стекло;
  • органические декоративные и защитные покрытия;
  • грязь и краска;
  • polymers, включая пластик и резину;
  • steel parts, including those, which are attached to aluminum.

Electrical Aluminum Scrap

Electric cables account for a large share of aluminum scrap from the electrical industry.. Alloys are traditionally used for the manufacture of cables 1350 and 6201, and for electric buses and other large conductors, an aluminum alloy is often used 6101.

Recently, they often began to use alloys of the 8xxx series for the manufacture of electric cables, such as 8017 and 8176, which have increased resistance to creep. However, their use is limited to, that they cannot be used for subsequent processing into 1xxx series alloys. A small number of cast aluminum alloys of the 1xxx series are also used in the electrical industry..

Impurities in electrical scrap

Потенциальными источниками примесей и загрязнений в электрических изделиях являются:

  • стальная проволока от усиленных сталью кабелей;
  • copper wire, перемешанные с алюминиевыми проводами;
  • plastics, which are used for insulation of wires and cables.

Packing aluminum scrap

Применение алюминия в упаковке продуктов подразделяется на две подкатегории: жесткие контейнеры (банки) и фольга. Алюминиевые банки для прохладительных напитков – сокращенно: алюминиевые пивные банки – начали применять в США в 1959 году. Two decades later, aluminum cans dominated the packaging of soft drinks and beer.

Although some competition with plastic and glass bottles still remains, they say, what the average american consumes about 350 aluminum cans per year. This situation is facilitated by the exceptional ability of aluminum to be recycled again into aluminum..

Aluminum scrap beer cans

Typical aluminum can изготавливают из двух алюминиевых сплавов:

  • Bank body - 83 % total weight – made of alloy 3004.
  • Крышку и «открывашку» (17 %) делают из более прочного алюминиевого сплава 5182.

Processing a mixture of these alloys is a problem, since a simple remelting of them gives an alloy, which contains too much magnesium, to apply it as an alloy 3004, and too much manganese, what to consider it an alloy 5182. As a result, this melt is usually diluted with primary aluminum or low alloy scrap., to get alloys, suitable for making beer cans.

Aluminum can manufacturers are trying to develop such an aluminum alloy, which could be used for manufacturing, like a can body, and its covers with an “opener”. This would allow truly direct processing of such an alloy..

Packing aluminum scrap

Aluminum strip and aluminium foil also widely used for packaging in soft containers, trays and disposable beverage containers. These types of packaging are often made of rolled alloys 1xxx or 8011 and, it would seem that, easy to recycle. However, such packaging is composite and contains a large amount of paper and plastic., which must be separated from thin aluminum foil before being sent for remelting. Therefore, the cost of processing such "scrap" is excessively high and it is almost never applied..

Aluminum Scrap Contaminants

Pollutants, which are characteristic of packaging scrap include, including:

  • бумагу и пластик;
  • стальные банки среди алюминиевых;
  • stones, mud, песок и стекло;
  • органические покрытия и краски на поверхности банок;
  • excessive moisture.

Источник: Mark E. Schlesinger, Aluminum Recycling, 2011