Alloy AD31 and its analogues 6060 and 6063

Currently, more than 80 % extruded aluminum profiles produced in the world of aluminum-magnesium alloys – сплавов серии 6ххх (или 6000, или 6ХХХ – кому что нравится!).

why alloys 6060, 6063 и АД31?

Main advantages of aluminum alloys 6xxx series consist in, that they are relatively easily pressed and quenched directly on the press with the achievement of the most durable state T6. clear, that the exclusion of the production technology of aluminum profiles with separate quenching step of heating - a big savings for production. (Подробнее см. Tempering in the press). Moreover, Most popular profiles of aluminum alloys 6060 and 6063 for their hardening requires only air from the fans, and only the thickest of them - the stronger and faster air flow.

The role of magnesium and silicon

Magnesium and silicon are major alloying elements in aluminum alloys 6xxx. Магний и кремний входят в соединение силицид магния (Mg2Si) в соотношении 1,73 to 1. It magnesium silicide particles do aluminum alloys 6000 thermally reinforcing. The level of the strength properties of aluminum alloys depends mainly on the amount of, size and homogeneity of the particle distribution Mg2Si Aluminum. this, in turn, It depends on the chemical composition of the alloy and the efficiency of thermal hardening profiles - quenching and aging.

Magnesium and silicon alloys in AD31, 6063 and other

Intervals content of Mg and Si in the main 6xxx series aluminum alloys are shown in Figure 1. It is seen, the content of Mg and Si alloys quite intersect with each other. However, we must take into account, that various aluminum alloys differ not only in content of magnesium and silicon. There are other alloying elements, for example, iron, copper and manganese, as well as various impurities. diagonally line - line just balanced magnesium and silicon content 1,73/1.

aljuminievye-splavy-serii-6000Figure 1 – The most popular series aluminum alloy 6000

Silicon alloys in AD31, 6063 and other

The minimum Si content at a predetermined Mg content in the chemical composition of the aluminum alloy evaluated as follows:. According to the content of magnesium in the alloy determined amount of silicon, которое он «свяжет» в силициде магния: %Si = %Mg/1,73. for instance, If the magnesium content of the alloy is 0,45 %, to form the necessary magnesium silicide 0,45/1,73 = 0,26 % silicon. But that's not all. Ко времени термического упрочнения профилей на выходе из пресса часть кремния уже находится в связанном состоянии с железом и марганцем в первичных частицах Al(FeMn)Si, formed even when casting pillars. This amount of silicon is estimated as a third or a quarter of the total content of iron and manganese: 1/4 (Fe + Mn). when the content of, let us say, gland 0,3 % and manganese 0,05 % to "leave" the formation of these particles is about 0,1 % silicon. The rest of the silicon - the "overweight"

comparison of alloys 6060, 6063 and AD31

Chemical composition of the aluminum alloys 6060 and 6063 by EN 573 and AD31 alloy according to GOST 4784 is shown in Table 1. In the "old" German DIN standard alloys 6060 and 6063 designated AlMgSi0.5 and AlMgSi0.7 respectively.

aljuminievye-splavy-6060-6063-AD31Table 1 – Chemical composition of the alloys AD31, 6060 and 6063

alloys 6063 and 6060

Aluminium alloy 6063 It was developed in the 1930s. In 1990 it appeared his "diluted" version, Aluminium alloy 6060. Currently alloy 6063 sometimes called "American" - it is widely used in the US. In Western Europe, widely used alloy 6060 - a kind of "European" version of the alloy 6063. In the scheme above shows, that alloys 6060 and 6063 intersect at a low magnesium content and excessive silicon. it, properly, It is the fundamental properties of the alloy 6060 and its main difference from the alloy 6063. Interesting point: in alloy 6060 given the iron content in the range – not like impurities, but as for the alloying element: from 0,10 by 0,30 %.

alloys 6063 and AD31

Aluminum alloy AD31 was developed in the USSR (or borrowed) in the same 1930s. Its chemical composition is determined by GOST 4784-97. To 2000 year AD31 alloy was identical to the alloy 6063. S 2000 AD31, the alloy according to GOST 4784-97 ceases to coincide with the alloy 6063: Significantly widened impurity tolerances, primarily for iron: with 0,35 by 0,5.

alloys 6060 and AD31

Unlike alloy 6060 from AD31 alloy essentially the same, and that the alloy 6063. Alloy AD31 GOST 4784-97 additionally still has an increased iron content: up to 0,5 %.

comparison of alloys 6060 and 6063

Aluminium alloy 6060

  • Aluminium alloy 6060 It has a minimum magnesium content 0,35 %, and silicon – 0,30 %.
  • Alloy 6060 sometimes called “diluted” alloy 6063.
  • In the T6 condition, it provides extruded profiles (up to 3 mm) minimum strength 190 MPa.
  • Easy to press even with very complex cross-section profiles.
  • It has good formability, e.g. during bending, able T4 - after quenching and natural aging.
  • Widely used in construction Walling – windows, doors, facades, as well as in the manufacture of handrails, fences, furniture, sports equipment.
  • Well suited for anodizing - a protective and decorative.

Aluminium alloy 6063

  • Aluminium alloy 6063 It has a minimum magnesium content 0,45 %, and silicon – 0,20 %.
  • Increased compared with the alloy 6060 magnesium minimum guaranteed provides somewhat greater strength, than an alloy 6060: in state T6 - up to 215 MPa.
  • However, increased content of magnesium alloy reduces compression rate 6063 - on 15-20 % in comparison with the alloy 6060.
  • Field of application of the alloy 6063 basically the same, that of the alloy 6060, with the exception of, can be very complex and thin-walled profiles, for example, heat exchangers "combs", When is it recommended to apply the alloy 6060.

Aluminium alloy 606035

HYDRO Aluminum giant has long been used and provides its customers, internal alloys, which are narrowed version of the main series alloys 6000. table 2 represented by the chemical composition of the alloy 606035, and Figure 2 - its place among the alloys 6060 and 6063. As we can see, it satisfies the chemical composition as the alloy requirements 6060, and alloy 6063. This alloy provides able T6 tensile strength of not less than 215 MPa, yield strength - at least 190 MPa, Elongation - at least 10 %. Such mechanical properties meet the requirements of standards for extruded sections in a state T6 alloy for 6060, and alloy 6063.

606035Table 2 – The chemical composition of the alloy 606035

606035-диаграммаFigure 2 – Alloy 606035 among alloys 6060, 6063 and AD31

Which alloy is better: 6060 or 6063?

On this occasion, there is an opinion from the group of specialists Aluminium Extrusion Professionals в сети LinkedIn. they believe, that in order to work with the alloy 6060 you need more modern equipment, than to work with the alloy 6063.

Co alloy 6063 easier to provide the required strength due to an increased magnesium content, and "diluted" alloy 6060 compensates for the minimum level of magnesium effective heat treatment. Therefore, the work with the alloy 6060 requires a more accurate implementation of temperature conditions throughout the technology for the production of aluminum profiles: from casting and homogenization of ingots to heating the billet and the temperature of the profile at the exit from the press.

It follows from this and the answer to the question, what's better, alloy 6060 or 6063:

  • With good equipment and / or highly skilled personnel Alloy 6060 It will give better performance, than an alloy 6063.
  • When old equipment and / or personnel malokvalifitsirovanom easier and safer to operate on an alloy 6063 or rafts AD31.