Aluminium Automotive Manual: Casting methods

European Aluminium Association


1 Overview of casting processes and their use in automotive applications

2 Trends in market share of casting methods for engine blocks and heads

3 Green sand castings

  • Green sand casting (Horizontal moulding)
  • Moulding process
  • DISAmatic casting

4 Core package casting

  • Introduction
  • Design features
  • Process description – Core manufacturing
  • Process description – Mould filling
  • Process description – Roll-over and solidification
  • Process description – Process features

5 Gravity die casting

  • Characteristics of process
  • Process description
  • Rotacast®

6 Low pressure die casting

  • LPDC description and product examples
  • LPDC machine

7 High pressure die castings

  • The HPDC process
  • HPDC process cycle
  • Typical automotive applications of aluminium High Pressure Die Castings
  • Design considerations
  • Common and special purpose HPDC alloys

8 Vacuum die castings

  • Characteristics of VDC
  • VDC Process
  • Examples of VDC parts
  • Vacuum Die Casting product examples
  • Mechanical properties

9 Squeeze castings

  • Squeeze Casting – Characteristics
  • UBE squeeze-casting machines and particular tilting-docking shot unit

10 Thixocastings

  • Semi-solid forming
  • Suitable alloys and their mechanical properties
  • Examples of part produced for the automotive industry using semi-solid forming processes
  • Main process parameters of semi-solid forming and their influence on quality
  • Possible defects and ways to avoid them

11 Vacuum riserless castings

  • VRC/ PRC – Introduction
  • VRC / PRC – Process
  • VRC / PRC – Processing of chassis parts
  • VRC / PRC – Mechanical Properties
  • VRC / PRC – Examples of parts
  • Ultra Large Caster (ULC)

12 Lost foam castings

  • Introduction
  • Pattern making & cluster assembly
  • Coating & embedding
  • Pouring & finishing
  • Advantages and disadvantages

13 Comparing casting techniques

  • Comparing casting techniques for engine blocks and cylinder heads

Aluminium Automotive Manual – Manufacturing – Casting Methods
Aluminium Automotive Manual

Some very usuful figures from this Manual

Figure – Automotive Casting methods ordered for casting and moulding technology,
shows market importance (Source: VAW)
1)Green sand casting 2)Modified DISAmatic casting 3)Core package casting
4)Gravity die casting 5)Low pressure die casting 6)High pressure die casting
7)Vacuum die casting 8)Squeeze casting 9)Thixocasting
10)Vacuum riserless casting 11)Lost foam casting

Figure – Above: Separation of metal drops and folding of metal surface
Below: If critical velocity is exceeded, metal drops separate (Source: Alcoa)
(For molten aluminum, the critical velocity is around 500 mm/s)

Figure – Overview of the Automated green sand casting (AGSC) Process:
Complete Control of Mold Filling Combined With High Productivity
Source: Alcoa

Figure – Gravity die casting process

Low pressure die casting

Figure – Schematic drawing of a typical cold-chamber diecasting machine
This is the only HPDC-type used with aluminium

Table – Comparing casting techniques