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Aluminium as a Light Metal

Aluminium is a light metal used in many industrial applications. Learn how to use and produce this valuable metal from Metallurgy of the Light Metals By Ian Polmear, David StJohn, Jian-Feng Nie, Ma Qian

SELECTED CONTENTS

1 The Light Metals

General Introduction

  • Characteristics of light metals and alloys
  • Beryllium
  • Relative abundance
  • Trends in production and applications
  • Recycling

Production of Aluminium

  • Bayer process for alumina recovery
  • Production of aluminium by the Hall–Héroult process
  • Alternative methods for producing aluminium

Production of Magnesium

  • Electrolytic extraction of magnesium
  • Thermic processes

Production of Titanium

2 Physical Metallurgy of Aluminium Alloys

Work Hardening and Annealing

  • Work-hardening characteristics
  • Substructure hardening
  • Forming limit curves
  • Textures
  • Secondary work-hardening effects
  • Annealing Behavior

Principles of Age Hardening

  • Decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions
  • The GP zones solvus
  • Precipitate-free zones at grain boundaries
  • Microalloying effects
  • Hardening mechanisms

Ageing Processes

  • Precipitation sequences
  • Clustering phenomena
  • GPB zones in Al–Cu–Mg alloys
  • Intermediate precipitates
  • Secondary precipitation

Corrosion

  • Surface oxide film
  • Contact with dissimilar metals
  • Influence of alloying elements and impurities
  • Crevice corrosion
  • Cavitation corrosion
  • Waterline corrosion
  • Metallurgical and thermal treatments

Mechanical Behaviour

  • Tensile properties
  • Toughness
  • Fatigue
  • Stress–corrosion cracking
  • Corrosion fatigue
  • Creep

3 Casting of Light Alloys

Introduction

Solidification of Light Alloys

  • Grain formation
    • Nucleation of the primary phase
    • Grain growth and morphology
  • Eutectic solidification

Grain Refinement

Castability

  • Fluidity
  • Volumetric shrinkage
  • Porosity
  • Hot tearing

Casting Processes

  • Introduction
  • Melting
    • Aluminium alloys
    • Magnesium alloys
  • High-pressure die casting
    • Aluminium alloys
    • Die soldering
    • Heat treatment
    • Magnesium alloys
  • Semi-solid processing
  • Squeeze casting
  • Gravity and low-pressure casting processes
  • Sand and precision sand casting processes
    • Sand casting
    • Cosworth process
    • ILP Process

New Casting Processes

  • T-Mag
  • Ablation casting
  • Application of external fields
    • Melt conditioning
    • Ultrasound and magnetic fields
  • Twin-roll casting of magnesium
  • Joining

4 Wrought Aluminium Alloys

Production of Wrought Alloys

  • Melting and casting
  • Continuous casting with moving molds
  • Homogenization of DC ingots
  • Fabrication of DC ingots
  • Thermal treatment
    • Solution treatment
    • Quenching
    • Ageing
    • Thermomechanical processing

Designation of Alloys and Tempers

  • Nomenclature of alloys
  • Temper or heat treatment nomenclatures

Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys

  • Super-purity and commercial-purity aluminium (1xxx series)
  • Al–Mn and Al–Mn–Mg alloys (3xxx series)
  • Al–Mg alloys (5xxx series)
  • Miscellaneous alloys (8xxx series)

Heat-Treatable Alloys

  • Al–Cu alloys (2xxx series)
  • Al–Cu–Mg alloys (2xxx series)
  • Al–Mg–Si alloys (6xxx series)
  • Al–Zn–Mg alloys (7xxx series)
  • Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloys (7xxx series)
  • Lithium-containing alloys

Joining

  • Welding
    • Arc welding
    • Friction stir welding
    • Laser welding
  • Brazing
  • Soldering
  • Diffusion bonding

Special Products

  • Aircraft alloys
  • Automotive sheet and structural alloys
  • Shipping
  • Building and construction
  • Packaging
    • Canstock
    • Foil
  • Powder metallurgy products
    • Conventional processing
    • Spray forming
  • Aluminium alloy bearing
  • Superplastic alloys
  • Electrical conductor alloys
  • Electric storage batteries
    • Aluminium-air batteries
    • Aluminium-ion batteries

5 Cast Aluminium Alloys

Designation, Temper, and Characteristics of Cast Aluminium Alloys

  • US Aluminium Association System
  • British system

Alloys Based on the Aluminium–Silicon System

  • Modification
  • Binary Al–Si alloys
  • Al–Si–Mg alloys
  • Al–Si–Cu alloys

Alloys Based on the Aluminium–Copper System

Aluminium–Magnesium Alloys

Aluminium–Zink–Magnesium Alloys

6 Magnesium Alloys

Introduction to Alloying Behavior

Alloy Designations and Tempers

Zirconium-Free Casting Alloys

Zirconium-Containing Casting Alloys

Wrought Magnesium Alloys

Electrochemical Aspects

Fabrication of Components

Trends in Applications

7 Titanium Alloys

Introduction

  • Classification of titanium alloys
  • Basic principles of heat treatment

α-Alloys

  • General
  • Fully-α alloys
  • Near-α alloys
  • Ti–Cu age-hardening alloy

α-β Alloys

  • Introduction to Ti-6Al-4V and other common α-β alloys
  • Annealing treatments
  • Properties of annealed α–β alloys
  • Quenching from β phase field
  • Ageing of titanium martensites
  • Decomposition of metastable β during ageing
  • Solution treated and aged (STA) α–β alloys

β-Alloys

  • Basic physical metallurgy
  • β-Titanium aerospace alloys
  • Specialty alloys

Fabrication

  • Hot working
  • Superplastic forming
  • Cold working
  • Texture effects
  • Machining
  • Surface treatments
  • Joining
  • Powder metallurgy processes

Titanium Alloy Casting

Engineering Performance

  • Tensile and creep properties
  • Fatigue properties
  • Fracture toughness
  • Corrosion
  • Stress–corrosion cracking
  • Corrosion fatigue

Applications of Titanium Alloys

  • Aerospace
  • General applications
    • Chemical and pharmaceutical equipment
    • Power generation
    • Automotive
    • Marine
    • Military hardware
    • Architectural
    • Sports
  • Dental and medical prostheses

8 Novel Materials and Processing Methods

Composites

  • Laminated composites
  • Sandwich panels
  • Metal–matrix composites
    • Aluminium alloys
    • Magnesium alloys
    • Titanium alloys

Metallic Foams

Rapid Solidification Processing

  • Aluminium alloys
  • Magnesium alloys
  • Titanium alloys

Quasicrystals

Amorphous Alloys

Mechanical Alloying

Physical Vapor Deposition

Nanophase Alloys

Titanium Aluminides

Additive Manufacturing or 3D Printing

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