Aluminium Design and Construction / John Dwight (1999)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRIEF CONTENTS 

About aluminium

  • General description
    • The element
    • The name
    • The industrial metal
    • Alloys
    • Castings
    • Supposed health risk
    • Supposed fire risk
  • Physical properties
  • Comparison with steel
    • The good points about aluminium
    • The bad points
  • History
    • The precious metal stage
    • The big breakthrough
    • Early applications
    • Establishment of the alloys
    • The first major market
  • Aluminium since 1945
    • Growth in output
    • New technology
    • Structural engineering
    • Architecture
    • Land transport
    • Marine usage

Manufacture

  • Production of aluminium metal
    • Primary production
    • Secondary metal
  • Flat products
    • Rolling mill practice
    • Plate
    • Sheet
    • Tolerance on thickness
    • Special forms of flat product
  • Extruded sections
    • Extrusion process
    • Heat-treatment of extrusions
    • Correction
    • Dies
    • Hollow sections
    • Extrudability of different alloys
    • Size and thickness limits
    • Tolerances
    • Design possibilities with extrusions
  • Tubes
    • Extruded tube
    • Drawn tube
    • Welded tube

Fabrication

  • Preparation of material
    • Storage
    • Cutting
    • Holing
    • Forming
    • Machining
  • Mechanical joints
    • Bolting and screwing
    • Friction-grip bolting
    • Riveting
  • Arc welding
    • Use of arc welding
    • MIG welding
    • TIG welding
    • Filler metal
    • Weld inspection
  • Friction-stir welding
    • The process
    • Features of FS welding
    • Limitations
    • Applications
  • Other welding processes
  • Adhesive bonding
    • Use of bonding
    • Surface preparation
    • Two-component adhesives
    • One-component adhesives
    • Applying the adhesive
    • Clamping
    • Curing
  • Protection and finishing
    • General description
    • Pretreatment
    • Anodizing
    • Painting
    • Contact with other materials

Aluminium alloys and their properties

  • Numbering system for wrought alloys
    • Basic system
    • Standardization of alloys
    • Work hardening
    • The O and F conditions
    • Relation between temper and tensile strength
    • Availability of different tempers
    • Heat-treated material
  • Characteristics of the different alloy types
    • Non-heat-treatable alloys
    • Heat-treatable alloys
  • Data on selected wrought alloys
    • How mechanical properties are specified
    • Specific alloys and their properties
    • Comments on certain alloys
    • Minimum bend radius
    • Strength variation with temperature
    • Properties of forgings
  • Stress-strain curves
    • Empirical stress-strain relation
    • Stress-strain curve for minimum strength material
  • Casting alloys
    • Numbering system
    • Three useful casting alloys
  • Alloys used in joints
    • Fastener materials
    • Weld filler wire
  • Corrosion
    • Corrosion of exposed surfaces
    • When to protect against corrosion
    • Bimetallic corrosion

Limit state design and limiting stresses

  • Limit state design
    • General description
    • Definitions
    • Limit state of static strength
    • Serviceability limit state
    • Limit state of fatigue
  • The use of limiting stresses
  • Limiting stresses based on material properties
    • Derivation
    • Procedure in absence of specified properties
    • Listed values
  • Limiting stresses based on buckling
    • General form of buckling curves
    • Construction of the design curves
    • The design curves

Heat-affected zone softening at welds

  • General description
  • Thermal control
  • Patterns of softening
    • Heat-treated material
    • Work-hardened material
    • Stress-strain curve of HAZ material
    • Multi-pass welds
    • Recovery time
  • Severity of HAZ softening
    • Softening factor
    • Heat-treated material
    • Work-hardened material
  • Extent of the softened zone
    • General considerations
    • Nominal HAZ
    • One-inch rule
    • RD method
    • Weld geometry
    • Single straight MIG weld
    • Variation of HAZ extent with weld size
    • Overlapping HAZs
    • Attachment welds
    • Definition of an isolated weld (10A-rule)
    • RD method, summary
  • Application of HAZ data to design
    • Design of members
    • Design of joints
  • Comparison with one-inch rule
  • HAZ at TIG welds
    • Difference between TIG and MIG welding
    • Severity of softening with TIG welding
    • Extent of softened zone for TIG welding
  • HAZ at friction-stir welds

Plate elements in compression

  • General description
    • Local buckling
    • Types of plate element
    • Plate slenderness parameter
    • Element classification (compact or slender)
    • Treatment of slender elements
  • Plain flat elements in uniform compression
    • Local buckling behaviour
    • Limiting values of plate slenderness
    • Slender internal elements
    • Slender outstands
    • Very slender outstands
  • Plain flat elements under strain gradient
    • Internal elements under strain gradient, general description
    • Internal elements under strain gradient, classification
    • Slender internal elements under strain gradient
    • Outstands under strain gradient, general description
    • Outstands under strain gradient, case T
    • Outstands under strain gradient, case R
  • Reinforced elements
    • General description
    • Limitations on stiffener geometry
    • ‘Standard’ reinforcement
    • Location of the stiffener
    • Modified slenderness parameter
    • Classification
    • Slender reinforced elements

Beams

  • General approach
  • Moment resistance of the cross-section
    • Moment-curvature relation
    • Section classification
    • Uniaxial moment, basic formulae
    • Effective section
    • Hybrid sections
    • Use of interpolation for semi-compact sections
    • Semi-compact section with tongue plates
    • Local buckling in an under-stressed compression flange
    • Biaxial moment
  • Shear force resistance
    • Necessary checks
    • Shear yielding of webs, method 1
    • Shear yielding of webs, method 2
    • Shear resistance of bars and outstands
    • Web buckling, simple method
    • Web buckling, tension-field action
    • Inclined webs
  • Combined moment and shear
    • Low shear
    • High shear, method A
    • High shear, method B
  • Web crushing
    • Webs with bearing stiffeners
    • Crushing of unstiffened webs
  • Web reinforcement
    • Types of reinforcement
    • Tongue plates
    • Transverse stiffeners
    • End-posts
  • Lateral-torsional buckling
    • General description
    • Basic check
    • Equivalent uniform moment
    • Limiting stress for LT buckling
    • Slenderness parameter
    • Beams with very slender compression flanges
    • Effective length for LT buckling
    • Beams of varying cross-section
    • Effect of simultaneous side moment
  • Beam deflection
    • Basic calculation
    • Beam of slender section

Tension and compression members

  • General approach
    • Modes of failure
    • Classification of the cross-section (compression members)
  • Effective section
    • General idea
    • Allowance for HAZ softening
    • Allowance for local buckling
    • Allowance for holes
  • Localized failure of the cross-section
  • General yielding along the length
  • Column buckling
    • Basic calculation
    • Column buckling stress
    • Column buckling slenderness
    • Column buckling of struts containing very slender outstands
  • Torsional buckling
    • General description
    • Interaction with flexure
    • ‘Type-R’ sections
    • Sections exempt from torsional buckling
    • Basic calculation
    • Torsional buckling stress
    • Torsional buckling slenderness
    • Interaction factor
    • Torsional buckling of struts containing very slender outstands
    • Empirical slenderness formulae
    • Torsional buckling of certain standardized sections
  • Combined axial force and moment
    • The problem
    • Secondary bending in trusses
    • Section classification
    • Interaction formulae (P+uniaxial M)
    • Alternative treatment (P+uniaxial M)
    • Interaction formulae (P+biaxial M)
    • Alternative treatment (P+biaxial M)
    • Treatment of local buckling
    • Eccentrically connected angles, channels and tees

Calculation of section properties

  • Summary of section properties used
  • Plastic section modulus
    • Symmetrical bending
    • Unsymmetrical bending
    • Bending with axial force
    • Plastic modulus of the effective section
  • Elastic flexural properties
    • Inertia of a section having an axis of symmetry
    • Inertias for a section with no axis of symmetry
    • Product of inertia
    • Inertia of the effective section
    • Elastic section modulus
    • Radius of gyration
  • Torsional section properties
    • The torque-twist relation
    • Torsion constant, basic calculation
    • Torsion constant for section containing ‘lumps’
    • Polar inertia
    • Warping factor
    • Special LT buckling factor
  • Warping calculations
    • Coverage
    • Numbering the elements
    • Evaluation of warping
    • Formula for the warping factor
    • Bisymmetric and radial-symmetric sections
    • Skew-symmetric sections
    • Monosymmetric sections, type 1
    • Monosymmetric sections, type 2
    • Asymmetric sections

Joints

  • Mechanical joints (non-torqued)
    • Types of fastener
    • Basic checking procedure
    • Joints in shear, fastener force arising
    • Joints in shear, fastener resistance
    • Joints in shear, member failure
    • Joints in tension, fastener force arising
    • Joints in tension, fastener resistance
    • Interaction of shear and tension
    • Comparisons
    • Joints made with proprietary fasteners
  • Mechanical joints (friction-grip)
    • General description
    • Bolt material
    • Ultimate limit state (shear loading)
    • Serviceability limit state (shear loading)
    • Bolt tension and reaction force
    • Slip factor
    • Serviceability factor
  • Welded joints
    • General description
    • Basic checking procedure
    • Weld force arising
    • Calculated resistance, weld-metal failure
    • Calculated resistance, fusion-boundary failure
    • Welded joints carrying axial moment
    • Welds under combined loading
    • Friction-stir welds
  • Bonded joints
    • General description
    • Specification of the adhesive
    • Surface preparation
    • Effect of moisture
    • Factors affecting choice of adhesive
    • Creep
    • Peeling
    • Mechanical testing of adhesives
    • Glue-line thickness
    • Properties of some selected adhesives
    • Resistance calculations for bonded joints
    • Testing of prototype joints

Fatigue

  • General description
  • Possible ways of handling fatigue
  • Checking procedure (safe life)
    • Constant amplitude loading
    • Variable amplitude loading
    • Design life
    • Stress range
    • Stress-range spectrum
  • Representative stress
    • Method A
    • Method B
  • Classification of details
    • The BS.8118 classification
    • Friction-stir welds
    • Bonded joints
  • Endurance curves
  • Instructions to fabricator
  • Improvement measures
  • Fatigue of bolts
    • Basic approach
    • Endurance curves for steel
    • Variation of bolt tension

PREVIEW